"when in doubt, document it."
In the social sciences, you
will usually be asked to use the American Psychological Association (APA)
style of in-text citations. These citations refer readers to a list of
references at the end of the paper. The following models are consistent
with advice given in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association (4th ed., 1994).*
For fine arts and humanities,
The APA's in-text citations
typically provide the author's last name and the date of publication. For
direct quotations, a page number should be given as well.
As Sandford (1986) reported,
"If the existence of a signing ape was unsettling for linguists, it was
also startling news for animal behaviorists" (p. 26).
Note: When the author's name
does not appear within the text, place the author's last name, the date,
and the page number in parentheses at the end of the quotation. Use commas
between items in the parentheses: (Sandford, 1986, p. 26).
According to Sandford
(1986), when they learned of a crab's ability to use sign language both
linguists and animal behaviorists were taken by surprise.
A work with
When they learned of a
crab's ability to use sign language, both linguists and animal behaviorists
were taken by surprise (Sandford, 1986).
depending on how much lemonade the mice had consumed (St. Clair & Vaitheswaran,
A work with
three to five authors:
The study noted
afluctuating divorce rate in Hiawatha from the 1920s to the 1970s (Chaimov,
Benda, Burke, Knott & Lemos, 1992).
A work with
six or more authors:
Note: In subsequent citations,
use the first author's name followed by "et al." within the text or in
by the crew of a Japan Air Lines flight remains a mystery. Radar tapes
did not confirm the presence of another craft ("Strange Encounter," 1987).
Two or more
works within the same parentheses:
Note: If the author is not
given, use the complete title within the text or use the fist two or three
words of the title in the parenthetical citation. If "Anonymous" is specified
as the author, treat it as if it were a real name: (Anonymous, 1987). In
the list of references, also use the name Anonymous as the author.
When your parenthetical
citation names two or more works, put them in the order that they appear
in the list of references, separated by semicolons: (Owen et al., 197 1;
A paper's cited works are
listed in a final alphabetized page entitled "References." List all citations
except for personal communications that cannot be obtained by the reader.
The general principles are as follows:
Invert all authors' names and
use initials instead of first names. With two or more authors, use an ampersand
(&) rather than the word "and." Separate the names with commas.
Use all authors' names; do not
use "et al."
Place the date of the publication
in parentheses immediately after the last author's name.
Underline titles and subtitles
of books; capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle (as
well as all proper nouns).
Do not place titles of articles
in quotation marks; capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle
(and all proper nouns). Capitalize names of periodicals as you would capitalize
them ordinarily. Underline the volume number of periodicals.
Use the abbreviation "p." (or
"pp." for plural) before page numbers of newspaper articles and works in
anthologies, but do not use it before page numbers of articles appearing
in magazines and scholarly journals.
You may use a short form of
the publisher's name as long as it is easily identifiable.
Alphabetize your list by the
last name of the author (or editor); if there is no author or editor, alphabetize
by the first word of the title other than a, an or the.
Unless your instructor suggests
otherwise, indent the first line of an entry (one-half inch or five spaces)
but do not indent any additional lines.
with one author:
Johanson, R. (1993).
The last panda. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
with two or more authors:
Goodwin, D. F &
Horowitz, S. (1992). Educational psvchology: Classroom connections.
New York: Merrill.
3) Two or
more works by the same author:
Lemos, J., Heller,
T., Hammond, J., Hansen, D. H., & Hoffman, R. (1982) Hiawatha families:
Fifty years of change and continuity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Use the author's name
for the first and subsequent entries. Arrange the entries by date, the
Fowler, J. (1993). Has
pen, will sign. Iowa City: Univeristy of Iowa Press.
Fowler, J (1996). Follow
me, I'm the man who knows. Des Moines: Meredith Publishing.
The Times atlas
of the world (9th ed). (1992). New York: Times Books.
Fisher, R. A.,
& Dobrian, S. (Eds.). (1993). The power of culture: Critical essays
in American history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Burke, E. (/ 990).
The untouched key.- Tracing childhood trauma in creativity and destructiveness.
(K. Weaver, Trans.). New York: Doubleday. (Original work published 1988)
in an anthology:
Pufall, M., &
Wolverton, S. (1984). Language acquisitions and socialization: Three development
stories. In C. Aukema & M. Bayles (Eds.), Culture theory: Essays
in mind, self, and emotion (pp. 2 76-320). New York: Cambridge University
in a journal paginated by volume:
LeRoy, D.J (1992).
Begging the question: Against phenomenal consciousness.Behavioral and
Brain Sciences, 15. 05-206.
in a journal paginated by issue:
(1990). Is the brain a digital computer?
Proceedings of the American.
Phrenology Association, 64 (3), 21-3 7.
in a magazine:
Jasperse, S. (1995,
February). Manic-depressive illness andcreativity. Scientific American:
in a daily newspaper:
Gitzy, D. (1995,
May 23). Pathways to college. The Boston Globe. pp. 1, 12-13.
article in a magazine or newspaper:
EMFs on the brain.
(1995, January 21). Science News, 141, 44.
from an information service or a database:
Horn, P. (1989).
The Victorian governess. History of Education, 18, 333-344. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. EJ 401 533)
US. Bureau of the
Census. (1989).Statistical abstract of the United States (109th ed).
Washington, DC,- US Government Printing Office.
software]. (1993). Palo Alto, CA: Pro/Tem.
Society (Producer). (1987). In the shadow of Vesuvius [Videotape]. Washington,
DC: National Geographic Society.
Note: References cited in text must
appear in the reference list; conversely, each entry in the reference list
must be cited in text. The author must make certain that the text citation
and the source in reference list are identical in spelling and year.