PUBLICATIONS of Floyd R. Sandford

I have been researching an unusual group of sponges called hermit crab sponges since 1986 and am a leading authority on these poriferans.

Other current research interests include:

  1. nature of the siliceous skeletons of sponges,
  2. biology of the green clinging crab Mithrax sculptus,
  3. the nature of the symbiotic association between the parchment tube worm Chaetopterus variopedatus and the pinnixid and pinnotherid crabs that inhabit its tube, and
  4. symbiotic relationships between marine chitons and algae and decopod crustaceans that live in sponges.

Further Information on my research is available on the WWW at:

Papers related to research on sponges and hermit crab sponge/hermit crab associations and other symbiotic associations involving marine organisms.

"The Florida Hermit-crab sponge, a little known "mobile" sponge from the NE corner of the Gulf of Mexico, and its Hermit Crab Associations", 1994, 273-278. In: Sponges in Time and Space, R. Van Soest, T. Van Kempen & J. Braekman (eds), Proceedings of the IVth International Porifera Congress, 19-23 April 1993, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Balkema, Rotterdam, 515 pp.

"Sponge/shell switching by hermit crabs, Pagurus impressus" 1995, Invertebrate Biology, 114(1):73-78.

"Redescription of the hermit-crab sponge, Spongosorites suberitoides" 1997. (w/ M. Kelly-Borges, British Natural History Museum). Natural History, 31, 315-328.

"Gastropod shell substrates of the Florida hermit-crab sponge, Spongosorites suberitoides" 1997. (with student Chris Brown). Bulletin of Marine Science, 61(2), 215-223.

"Shared use of a single hermit crab sponge by two individual Pagurus impressus" 2001. Bulletin of Marine Science, 69(3):1239-1242.

"Population dynamics and epibiont associations of hermit crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Paguroidea) on Dog Island, Florida. 2003. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, 60(1): 45-52.

"Physical and chemical analysis of the siliceous skeletons in six sponges of two sponge groups (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida). 2003. Microscopy Research and Technique, 62(4):336-355 [special issue on silica deposition in sponges].

"Polyonyx gibbesi (Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae) and Pinnixa chaetopterana (Decapoda: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae), two crab commensals in tubes of the polychaete worm Chaetopterus sp., in the northern Gulf of Mexico" 2006. Biology of Anomura II (A. Asakura, ed.), Crustacean Research, Special Number 6: 23-31.

Zdenek Duris and Floyd Sandford.  Commensalistic shrimp living in sponge shelters, Tobacco Caye, Belize, Western Caribbean.  In Prep.

Other Publications

"Modern Zoos: New Challenges - New Responsibilities" 1984. American Biology Teacher, 46(1):36-42 (with 8 photographs and front cover photo).

"The Zoos role in animal behavior education". 1985. International Zoo News, 190(32/2):26-33 (with 2 photographs).

"Intra- and interspecific aggression in two species of field crickets". 1987. Aggressive Behavior, 13:149-164.

"Environmental Education in Hertfordshire". 1990. The Biosphere, No. 5, Winter, School of Natural Resources, OSU, OH.

"Teaching Environmental Studies as a non-spectator experience", Proc. of the Ann. Meeting of NAEE, San Antonio, TX, Nov. 2-7, 1990.

The Tropical Rain Forest Food Web Game. 1992 (3rd Ed). For grades 3-8, 72 pp. An interactive, role-playing game to help educate about the interconnections in an Amazon rainforest. (Rights to game transferred to Passport to Knowledge in 1998).

"Hope for the Future: Rediscovering Earth as Home". 1992. Muses (publication of the Iowa Humanities Board), 15(1):12-13.

"Darwin Remembers" a one-act play for a single actor. 2002. Excerpt published in Darwin Day Collection One, The Darwin Day Program, Tangled Bank Press, pp. 217-220, 466 pp.

"Like two old trees" (a poem). Wapsipinicon Almanac (Tim Fey, Ed.). Number 13. (Winter 2006 issue).