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People Mentioned in The Tory Lover
A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T V/W
This listing allows the reader to read through the list of characters and names mentioned in The Tory Lover. For some characters, more information is available at these two locations:
The Crew of the Ranger in The Tory Lover
Crew members do not appear on the list below.
Extended Notes on Characters in The Tory Lover
These characters appear briefly on the list below, with direct links to more detailed treatments in "Extended Notes."
Numbers in parenthesis after the names indicate the first chapter in which the character is mentioned.
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John Adams (7): John Adams (1735-1826) was an important political figure in the American Revolution, serving in the Continental Congresses and in diplomatic positions. He helped draft the "Declaration of Independence." In 1777-8, he served with Benjamin Franklin as a commissioner to France. He eventually became the second President of the United States (1797-1801).
Sam Adams (2): Samuel Adams (1722-1803), sometimes, Mr. Adams, of Massachusetts, was a major figure in many aspects of the American Revolution.
Ajax (2): Negro servant of Judge Benjamin Chadbourne. See Cæsar below.
Apollo (8): Haggens family slave. See Cæsar below.
Le petit Arouet: See Voltaire below.
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Praise-God Barebones (8): The "Barebones" parliament, called by Oliver Cromwell in 1653, was so named derisively, according to the Encarta Encyclopedia, because one of its Puritan members was named "Praisegod Barbon or Barebone, a leather merchant."
Barrington (36): William Wildman Shute, 2nd Viscount Barrington (1717-1793) began government service in the Irish House of Lords in 1745. He became a member of the British Parliament in 1754 and then served in the Exchequer and other offices. During the American Revolution, he was Secretary of War (1765-1778). For details see: Shute Barrington, Political Life of William Wildman, Viscount Barrington (1814). Lossing characterizes Lord Barrington as strongly opposed to the American rebellion: "In the upper House, Lord Barrington called the Americans "traitors, and worse than traitors, against the crown -- traitors against the legislation of this country. The use of troops," he said, "was to bring rioters to justice" (vol. 2; ch. 6).
Abbé de Beaumont (17): Master Sullivan says he knew the Abbé, a nephew of Fénelon, and with him visited Fénelon at Cambrai. In Butler's Life of Fenelon, de Beaumont is mentioned as a friend and subordinate teacher under Fénelon to the royal dukes, and as his nephew (p. 112). In The Age of Louis XIV, Voltaire mentions him as "the king's tutor," who helped to insure that plays were performed at court despite Jansenist objections (Ch. 25).
Bedfords (32): Mme. Wallingford "hates" these people for their treatment of American Loyalists. Probably she refers to John Russell, 4th duke of Bedford (1710-71), a leader of the "Bedford Group" of Whigs who were conciliatory toward American colonials. Her use of the plural in Chapter 32 suggests she is referring to the group as well as to John Russell, who had been dead for about 7 years when she made her statement.
Duke of Berwick: The Duke of Berwick is not referred to in The Tory Lover, but Jewett meant to include him. See Duke de Sully below.
According to the web site of the Wild Geese Heritage Museum and Library in Galway, Ireland, by Sean Ryan, the Marshal Duke of Berwick (1670-1734) was James FitzJames, Marshal of France. He "was born at Moulins in the Bourbonnais, France, on August 21 1670. He was the son of Arabella Churchill and James II. His mother was a daughter of Sir Winston Churchill, descended from the Councils of Anjou, Poictou and Normandy. His uncle was the famous John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough."
King James II prepared his son for a military career. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, which deposed James, the King and his son fled to Catholic Ireland to lead the resistance to Protestant English rule. There, the Duke distinguished himself in battle and became acquainted with Patrick Sarsfield and Master John Sullivan's father. He eventually married Sarsfield's widow. After the failure of the Irish resistance, he joined the French army as a volunteer, where he continued to support the Jacobites [supporters of James II], and he again distinguished himself, rising to the position of Marshal of France.
Blunt family of Newcastle (45): Friends of Mary and the Wallingfords who welcome them home. This passage from Charles Hazlett, History of Rockingham County, New Hampshire (1915), chapter 39 (placed on the Internet by Claudia Menzel), gives a sense of the consequence of the Blunt family in 18th-century Newcastle:
Hon. John Frost and his lady were early established at Newcastle, where he soon rose to eminence. He was a member of his Majesty's Council, at one time commanded a British ship of war, afterwards pursued the profession of a merchant, and was much distinguished and highly useful in civil life. His place of residence was on an eminence westerly of the Prescott mansion, commanding a view of the spacious harbor, the river and its table-lands, with the lofty Agamenticus in the distance. Some remains of his extensive wharf may yet be traced. His family was numerous and highly respectable, one of whom was Madame Sarah Blunt, born in 1713, consort of Rev. John Blunt, third pastor of the church in Newcastle, and after his decease the wife of Hon. Judge Hill, of South Berwick, Me. Hon. John Frost died February 25, 1732, in the fifty-first year of his age. In the cemetery is a moss-covered monument, which bears unmistakable evidence that the same poet who sketched the above chaste epitaph has also, in as smooth and as strong lines, drawn another marked portraiture : "To the memory of Rev'd JOHN BLUNT, Pastor of the Church of Christ of this Town who died Aug. 7, 1748, in the 42d year of his age, whose body lies here interred, this stone is erected. "Soft is the sleep of saints, in peace they lie, They rest in silence, but they never die; From these dark graves, their flesh refined shall rise And in immortal bloom ascend the skies. Then shall thine eyes, dear Blunt! thine hands, thy tongue -- In nicer harmony each member strung -- Resume their warm devotion, and adore Him in whose service they were joined before."
Duke de Boufflers (16): This boy, who was a fellow-student of Voltaire (and according to this novel, of Master Sullivan) in Paris, probably was the grandson of the military hero who gained the title for his success as Marshal of France during the War of the Grand Alliance (1689-1697; see Voltaire, The Age of Louis XIV, Ch. 16). Parton's Life of Voltaire tells this story about the boy at the Collége Louis-le-Grand: "It was while Voltaire was a pupil that the Duke de Boufflers and the Marquis d'Argenson conspired with other boys to blow a pop-gun volley of peas at the nose of the unpopular professor, Father Lejay, and were condemned to be flogged for the outrage. The marquis, a boy of seventeen, the son of a king's minister, managed to escape; but the younger duke, though he was named 'Governor of Flanders' and colonel of a regiment, was obliged to submit to the punishment" (v. 1, 31-2).
Boutineaus (34): George A. Ward in Journal and Letters of Samuel Curwen (1842) identifies James Boutineau (d. after 1777) as a Boston attorney, the "father-in-law of John Robinson, commissioner of customs, who made a personal attack on James Otis, Esq., [1725-1783] which produced so great a derangement of mind in the latter, as to lead to his withdrawal from the public service" (492-3, See also Sabine, American Loyalists, 168-9).
Of the Otis incident, Lossing says:
"The public career of Mr. Otis was ended before the tempest of the Revolution which he had helped to engender, burst upon the colonies. In 1769, his bright intellect was clouded by a concussion of the brain, produced by a blow from a bludgeon in the hands of a custom-house officer whom he had offended. Ever afterward he was afflicted by periods of lunacy. At such times, thoughtless or heartless men and boys would make themselves merry in the streets, at his expense. It was a sad sight to see the great orator and scholar so shattered and exposed" (Our Country V. 2, Ch. 7).
Burgoyne (6 and other chapters): The British general, John Burgoyne (1722-1792) was an important figure in the American Revolution. According to the Encarta Encyclopedia, he became dissatisfied with British conduct of the war; "he won official approval of his own campaign strategy to invade New York from Canada and combine his troops at Albany with a force of British and Native Americans under Colonel Barry St. Leger. In May 1777, Burgoyne replaced Carleton in command and in the early summer moved southward with almost 9000 men. He captured Fort Ticonderoga on July 6, but thereafter his advance toward Albany was slowed. He reached Saratoga in September, fought an indecisive battle with the Americans, and retreated. On October 7 he again made contact with the Americans at Saratoga but, lacking reinforcements and supplies, surrendered ten days later to Major General Horatio Gates. The American victory is generally regarded as the turning point of the war."
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Cæsar (2): A servant of Mary Hamilton's family. In Chapter 35, Cæsar is referred to as "their own old slave." See "Cæsar" in Extended Notes for more on slaves in Old Berwick.
Judge Benjamin Chadbourne (1): Benjamin Chadbourne (1718-1799), from one of the leading families of South Berwick, served as a soldier and politician as well as a judge. See Extended Notes.
Duke and Duchess of Chartres (23, 39): Louis Philippe Joseph (1747-1793) was Duke of Chartres and then Duc d'Orléans, a French nobleman, cousin of King Louis XVI. See Extended Notes.
Abbé de Châteauneuf (17): According to Parton's Life of Voltaire, the Abbé de Châteauneuf was Voltaire's godfather and tutor. He is characterized as a freethinker and epicurean, and a lover of the dramatist, Racine (25). He recognized young Voltaire's talents and in various ways furthered his early successes, such as introducing him to influential patrons like Ninon de Lenclos, mistress of several powerful men, including the Abbé de Châteauneuf. (Research assistance: Travis Feltman)
Earl of Chatham (23): William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham (1708-1778), was the prime minister of Great Britain (1766-1768) who led the country to victory over France in the Seven Years' War. He also was known for his defense of the rights of the American colonies at the beginning of the Revolution. (Source: Encarta Encyclopedia)
Monsieur Le Ray de Chaumont (22): Jacques Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont, says, S. E. Morison, "was a bourgeois who, after making a fortune in the East India trade, bought the sumptuous Hôtel Valentinois.... Having Dr. Franklin and the other Commissioners and their secretaries live on the grounds of his splendid residence was a convenient means for conducting Franco-American relations informally and discreetly." Morison also says that Mme. de Chaumont became Jones's mistress. (John Paul Jones 123-5).
Prince of Conti (3): See Duke of Sully.
Mrs. Craik (22): John Paul Jones's father worked as a gardener for William Craik, a landowner at Arbigland, Scotland.
Cuffee (8): Haggens family slave. See Cæsar.
Judge Curwen (1,2,38): Samuel Curwen (1715-1802) was American-born and a judge of Admiralty in the British colonial administration of the American colonies, a loyalist with a complex attitude toward his homeland, and an American refugee in England from 1775-1784. See Extended Notes.
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Lord Darwentwater (36): James Radcliffe, 3rd Earl of Derwentwater (1689-1716), was a cousin and childhood companion of James III (the "Old Pretender") and became involved in the 1715 Jacobite uprising. He was captured and executed in 1716. His younger brother, Charles Radcliffe, led troops in this rebellion. See Charles Radcliffe.
Davis, John (32): Bristol (England) merchant; helper of Mary Hamilton and Mme. Wallingford. Almost certainly this is a fictional character, though the name of John Davis is common enough to appear in Bristol records of the 18th century that one finds on the Internet. However, no particular John Davis has been found on whom Jewett may have based her character. See Extended notes.
Mr. Deane (22): Silas Deane (1737-1789), along with Benjamin Franklin served as an American commissioner to France during the Revolutionary War.
Denny Delane (30): Dennis Delane (1700-1750) was a celebrated Dublin and London actor, remembered for his parts in Elizabethan plays, such as Shakepeare's Henry V.
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Young Earl (31): Earl is mentioned once as imprisoned in the Mill Prison in Chapter 31, but he is not on Charles Herbert's list of prisoners. In the March of 1779, Jones helped to negotiate a prisoner exchange in which over 200 American prisoners were released. Many of these then joined Jones as crew for the Bon Homme Richard; John Earl is listed by the unreliable Augustus Buell as among the petty officers and able seamen on the Richard. See William Earl (The Crew of the Ranger) for information about the Earl family.
Lord Mount Edgecumbe/Edgcumb (34): George Edgecumb (1721-1795), became 1st Earl of Mount Edgecumbe in 1789. He "was a naval officer who saw a great deal of service during the Seven Years' War. Succeeding to the barony on the 1st baron's death in 1761, he became an admiral and treasurer of the royal household; he was created Viscount Mount-Edgecumbe in 1781 and earl of Mount-Edgecumbe in 1789." The family possessed estates near Plymouth, notably the extensive residence at Mount Edgcumb, and the first Earl also held the appointment of Lord-Lieutenant of Cornwall.
In Chapters 34-7, he is said to be concerned about his oaks going down, is criticized for his oversight of the prison, and is said to be the master of Plymouth. None of these assertions has yet been verified. (Research assistance: Graham Frater; additional sources: Duprez's Visitor's Guide to Mount Edgecumbe, 1871, "Historical Sketch of the Edgecumbes" and L. Jewitt and S. C. Hall, The Stately Homes of England.).
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Mr. George Fairfax, of Virginia (35): The Fairfax family were prominent Virginia landowners, and included, as well-known loyalists, Lord Thomas, whose estate was thought to be the largest in America at the beginning of the revolution, Bryan (1727-1802) and George (1724-1787). Bryan and George were brothers, the sons of Colonel William Fairfax.
George Fairfax was British born, immigrated to Virginia and served in various official positions until he inherited property in Yorkshire in 1773 and returned to England to manage it. He did not return to Virginia. In American Loyalists (1847), Lorenzo Sabine says:
"He fixed his residence at Bath.... During the war he evinced much kindness to American prisoners who were carried to England. A part of his Virginia estate was confiscated, by which his income was much reduced. Washington esteemed him highly, and they were ever friends" (277).
Faneuils (34): In Journal and Letters of ... Samuel Curwen, Ward describes Benjamin Faneuil as a Loyalist, "a merchant of Boston, and with Joshua Winslow, consignee of one-third of the East India Company's tea destroyed in 1773; was a refugee to Halifax, afterwards in England" (492). The Faneuil family had been prominent in Boston in the 18th century, Peter Fanueil building and giving to the city the famous Fanueil Hall, which became a noted meeting place of American rebels.
Fénelon, François de Salignac de la Mothe (17). Fénelon (1651-1715) was a French writer, theologian, and bishop. Having served as tutor to Louis XIV's grandson, the Duke of Burgundy, Fénelon was intimately connected with the French court, even after he fell out of favor with the king. He submitted to the Church's condemnation in 1699 of his Maxims of the Saints, and continued as Archbishop of Cambrai (1695-1715) - in exile from the court - until his death. He is well-remembered in part for his great acts of charity during the War of the Spanish Succession. (Sources: "Life of Fénelon," by Lamartine, in Fénelon, Adventures of Telemachus. O. W. White, editor, 1886; and Voltaire, The Age of Louis XIV, Ch. 38).
Hezekiah Ford (41): One of Arthur Lee's private secretaries. Buell charges that he, like Thornton, was involved in revealing U.S. secrets to the British and in encouraging Lieutenant Simpson to mutinous actions (1;105, 2;43), but this has not been confirmed in reliable sources. Indeed, biographer Louis W. Potts in Arthur Lee (1981), says that Ford was not a spy, but that "Governor Patrick Henry and the Council of Virginia considered Ford an enemy to the American cause of independence," because he had opposed a militia draft in North Carolina and engaged in counterfeiting. Potts says virtually nothing is known of Ford's movements after he returned to the United States in August, 1779, on a mission to vindicate Arthur Lee of charges made against him by Silas Deane (222-3).
Fox, Charles James (23): Fox (1749-1806) was a "British statesman, one of the principal leaders of the Whig Party in the period of the American and French revolutions. The son of Henry Fox, 1st baron Holland, a Whig politician of the previous generation, Fox was born in Westminster on January 24, 1749, and was educated at Eton and the University of Oxford. He entered Parliament at the age of 19, obtaining a seat through his father's influence, and was initially a supporter of the Crown. He held minor posts in the ministry of Lord North between 1770 and 1774, until King George III had him dismissed because of his open sympathy for the American colonists. He then joined the Whig opposition and quickly became one of its leaders, showing great skill as an orator." (Source: Encarta Encyclopedia).
Benjamin Franklin (22): Franklin (1706-1790) was a major figure in the American Revolution. In addition to serving as a commissioner to France, Franklin was an active revolutionary in a variety of other capacities, including signing the Declaration of Independence and serving as a delegate to the U. S. Constitutional Convention.
French Minister of Marine (22): Antoine de Sartine (1729-1801) was French Minister of Marine (1774-1780). He also served as master of requests for the city of Châtelet, lieutenant general of the police in Paris, and as state counselor. (Research: Travis Feltman)
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Garrick (11): David Garrick (1717-1779): English actor, producer, dramatist, poet, and co-manager of the Drury Lane Theatre. He was best known for his roles as King Lear, Macbeth, and Richard III in Shakespeare's plays as well as Abel Drugger in Ben Jonson's The Alchemist. His reforms of the Drury Lane Theatre made him highly successful from the years 1747 to 1775. (Research: Travis Feltman)
George III (12): King of England during the American Revolution, George III (1738-1820) was determined to retain the American colonies and that they should submit to Royal rule.
Mr. Nicholas Gilman, of Exeter (2): Belknap in The History of New-Hampshire identifies Nicholas Gilman (1731-1783) as a counselor and then a senator from New Hampshire 1777-1783. He was treasurer of New Hampshire during the Revolution. His eldest son Nicholas (d. 1814) was a delegate to the second constitutional convention and also served as a senator from New Hampshire, and his second son, John Taylor (d. 1828) was governor of New Hampshire (262). His third son, Nathaniel, a New Hampshire state legislator, was Sarah Orne Jewett's great-grandfather on her mother's side. See also, Paula Blanchard, Sarah Orne Jewett (12). "Master Tate's Diary" gives the death of the wife of Nicholas Gilman (Sr.), Molly, 28 December 1777. Molly was the daughter of Rev. James Pike; this would suggest that Rev. Pike was Jewett's great-great-grandfather (See Parson Pike below).
General Goodwin (2):
In Chapter 2, he laments the decline of law and order, referring to slavers, the minister guesses, and so leading Jones to raise an issue over which the community is divided. In Chapter 29, he leads in breaking up the mob that attacks Mrs. Wallingford. This is General Ichabod Goodwin (1743-1829) of Old Fields, grandson of Hetty Goodwin. See Extended Notes.
Old Mrs. Hetty Goodwin (32): Mehetable Goodwin was one of the early settlers of Berwick, famous in the area for the story of her Indian captivity during the French and Indian wars. See Extended Notes.
Lord Gormanstown (30): The Lords Gormanstown, Howth, and Trimlestown are all remembered by Master Sullivan in Chapter 30 as fancy dressers when attending the theater in Dublin during Sullivan's youth, probably in about 1720. All three families were prominent among the nobility in Dublin in the 18th century. See Extended Notes.
Thankful Grant (4): Grant is a common name among the sailors who served with John Paul Jones, and there was a large Grant family living in South Berwick during the Revolutionary era. They intermarried with the Wentworth and Ricker families, among others according to John Wentworth, (1815-1888) The Wentworth genealogy: English and American. According to various family web sites, there was a Thankful Grant born in Westfield, MA in 1776, but the date and the distance suggest that Jewett was not thinking of this particular person as the young woman who fears for her "young man" who has joined the mob from Dover that plans to question Roger Wallingford about his loyalty in Ch. 4. "Thankful" also was a name known to Jewett, and probably would be associated in her mind with Quakers. See Mary Rice Jewett's "Recollections of Whittier," for Thankful Hussey.
Gray (2): Harrison Gray (1712-1794), according to Ward, was a merchant and receiver-general of Massachusetts before the Revolution. Ward describes him as a particularly able, honest and faithful public servant who had the bad fortune to be appointed to the position responsible for tax collection for the Crown in 1774, shortly before Royal government ceased to command authority. Ward says, "Perhaps no man among the many excellent persons who went into exile at that time, was more beloved and regretted by his political enemies; for a more genuine model of nature's nobleman never lived" (Letters and Journals of ... Samuel Curwen 506-7).
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Old Master Hackett (12): Two Hacketts, William and James, were well-known ship-builders in Portsmouth, NH, prior to and after the American Revolution. See Extended Notes.
Major Tilly Haggens (1) and Nancy, his sister (8): Tilly Haggens's (d. 17 August 1777) ancestry is Irish. So far as has been discovered, he had no sister Nancy, though his daughter Nancy became the owner of the Jewett house in South Berwick and sold it to Thomas Jewett, Sarah's great uncle, in 1839. See Extended Notes.
Haggens family servants named in the novel (all slaves) (8)
In Tilly Haggens's will, he bequeaths a Negro man "named Seaser" to his son, John, and "a Negro boy called Sandy" to his son Edmund.
Colonel Jonathan Hamilton (1): Jonathan Hamilton (1745-1802) was the builder of Hamilton House in South Berwick, ME. His wife, not his sister, was Mary Hamilton. Both were born near South Berwick. Hamilton became a prominent merchant and ship-builder after the American Revolution. See Extended Notes.
Mary Hamilton (1): Mary Hamilton (1749-1800) in history was Jonathan Hamilton's wife. She was born Mary Manning in the Pine Hill area north of South Berwick, where Master Sullivan was schoolmaster. See Extended Notes.
Hamilton family servants named in the novel
Caesar: see above.
John Hancock (2): John Hancock (1737-93) was the first signer of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. In 1775-7, as presiding officer of the Second Continental Congress, he was called President Hancock. He chaired the Marine Committee during the American Revolution, and he was the first governor of Maine under the Constitution of the Commonwealth (1780-1785). He also signed the incorporation papers for the Berwick Academy. (Research assistance: Wendy Pirsig.)
David Hartley (22): Son of the philosopher David Hartley, Hartley studied medicine, became a noted scientist and a friend of Benjamin Franklin (See Chapter 22). He served in the British Parliament during the American Revolution and was associated with the Rockingham Whigs. He developed an expertise in finance and opposed British war policies during the Revolution. In "Letters on the American War" (1778), he argued for accepting American independence and pursuing friendly policies toward the new nation.
Charles Herbert, of Newbury, in Massachusetts (31): Jewett presents him as a scribe at the Mill prison. He is sometimes said to be from Newburyport. Herbert (1757-1808) is remembered for his narrative of his experiences when the American privateer on which he served, the Dolton, was captured and its crew imprisoned at Plymouth. In A Relic of the Revolution: Containing a Full and Particular Account of the Sufferings And Privations of All the American Prisoners Captured on the High Seas, and Carried into Plymouth, England, During the Revolution of 1776;With the Names of the Vessels taken -- the Names and Residence of the several Crews, and time of their Commitment -- the Names of such as died in Prison, and such as made their Escape, or entered on board English Men-of-War, until the exchange of prisoners, March 15, 1779 (1847), Herbert narrates the capture of the Dolton in December 1776 and tells of his experiences as a captive in the Mill Prison at Plymouth. His narrative contains the details Jewett presents about him, including his falling ill with smallpox. Herbert later served under John Paul Jones on the Alliance (1779-80). This book is available on-line at http://www.americanrevolution.org/relic.html.
Hertel and his French and Indians (16): Jean-Baptiste Hertel (1668-1722) was the third son of François Hertel (1642-1722), a French-Canadian, who grew up in a rough pioneer farming community at Trois-Rivières in Quebec and endured Indian captivity and other privations early in his life. François and his sons eventually served the French military in a series of raids on English colonies during several periods of warfare. In 1690, in King William's War (1689-1697), Jean-Baptiste Hertel led Indian warriors into Maine and New Hampshire. Jean-Baptiste continued his military career and was among those who built the French fortress at Louisburg, Nova Scotia (http://www.blupete.com/Hist/BiosNS/1700-63/Hertel.htm). See Extended Notes.
Major Hight (8): Tilly Haggens notes Major Hight's new house on a ridge visible from the front porch of his house. Though it is difficult to be sure who this Major Hight is, the most likely candidate is William Hight, father of Temple Hight. See Extended Notes.
Mr. Hill (2): Jewett may be referring to either of two John Hills of South Berwick. See Extended Notes.
Martha Hill (5): A young woman friend of Mary Hamilton; she is among the young people who attend the party for Jones the day before he sails. No record of a Martha Hill fitting this description has been found in the South Berwick area of this period.
Humphrey Hodgdon (28): This is one of the local men mentioned as killed in New Jersey battles of 1778 (Ch. 28). Hodgdon/Hodsdon is a prominent name in Maine, in which a county and a town are so named. However, it has not been confirmed that a specific Hodgdon from Berwick died in the Revolution. He is not listed in Fisher & Fisher. W. D. Spencer's "A List of the Revolutionary Soldiers of Berwick" (1898) lists Daniel Hodsdon as serving nine months in 1778, and being a prisoner.
Sir William Howe (32): William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe (1729-1814), according to the Encarta Encyclopedia was "British commander in chief in North America (1775-78) during the early years of the American Revolution. See Extended Notes.
Lord Howth (30): See above, Lord Gormanstown. The Howth family name is St. Lawrence; Howth Castle remains a landmark in Dublin. Samuel Fitzpatrick in Dublin: A Historical and Topographical Account of the City (1907) give this description from the 1780s:
"The North Circular Road now became a fashionable driving resort, where the beautiful Duchess might be seen in the magnificent viceregal equipage. Here, Lord Cloncurry tells us in his Personal Recollections, 'it was the custom, on Sundays, for all the great folk to rendezvous in the afternoon, just as, in latter times, the fashionables of London did in Hyde Park; and upon that magnificent drive I have frequently seen three or four coaches-and-six, and eight or ten coaches-and four passing slowly to and fro in a long procession of other carriages, and between a double column of well-mounted horsemen.'
"Here O'Keeffe saw Lord Howth with 'a coachman's wig with a number of little curls, and a three-cocked hat with great spouts,' while the 'horsey' character of the St. Laurence family was further evidenced by the 'bit of straw about two inches long' which his Lordship carried in his mouth" (Chapter 6).
Thomas Hutchinson (10): Hutchinson (1711-1780) was the last civilian Royal Governor of the provinces of Maine and Sagadahock (1769-1774). He was replaced by a military governor-general, Thomas Gage, in 1774, who was soon replaced in 1775 by a rebellious Provincial Congress. Born in Maine and a graduate of Harvard (1727), he was the author of a respectable history of the Massachusetts colony. Williamson in The History of the State of Maine says, "Not succeeding in his commercial pursuits, though it seemed to be the most ardent desire of his soul to acquire wealth; he applied himself indefatigably to the study of history, politics and law. He was early elected by the inhabitants of Boston into the House of Representatives, and in 1747, he was Speaker. By his industry, eloquence, and knowledge of public affairs, he acquired great influence and distinction. Besides being Lieutenant-Governor he was a Councillor, Chief Justice of the Superior Court in 1760, and also Judge of Probate for Suffolk" (v. 2, ch. 13). As a former Royal Governor, Hutchinson was sympathetic to Tory refugees in England.
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King James (3): James II (1633-1701), King of England 1685-1688. He was deposed in 1688 and replaced by his daughter, Mary II and her husband, William of Orange (William III). James's Catholic son, Francis Edward Stuart became the Old Pretender, James III, whom Irish and French Catholics, among others, wished to make King of England. James II's grandson, Charles Edward, became known as the Young Pretender.
Mr. Jenkins's (8): An 1805 survey map, at the Old Berwick Historical Society, of part of the village of South Berwick shows a Junkins house across the road (east side) from the John Haggens house, and just south of this house a store is shown. This may have been the store of Mr. Jenkins that Tilly is curious about in Chapter 8, but this has not been confirmed.
The store on this map would be almost directly in front of Haggens, and seems to correspond to the location of Jewett's grandfather's West India store, opened after Captain Jewett came to South Berwick around 1819-1821.
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Keays (16): In the histories of Maine, this name is sometimes spelled "Keys." This family is listed in Chapter 16 among those who were early settlers in Berwick and who had members captured by Indians and taken to Canada. See Hetty Goodwin in Extended Notes.
Kersaint, the French commodore (14): Buell reports a meeting at Hampton Roads, Virginia, of John Paul Jones and Capitaine de Vaisseau de Kersaint, the senior officer of two French frigates - one of which was the new Le Terpsichore - in May 1775. The Duke of Chartres was second in command. According to Morison, this meeting never took place (426).
Hate-Evil Kilgore (8): This child is an unfortunate South Berwick neighbor of Major Haggens, from down the Landing Hill, whose name reflects the ideas of "Roundhead days," the Puritan revolution in England (Ch. 8). Though the historical existence of this person has not be verified, Internet accounts of Kilgore and Brackett family history indicate that the Kilgore family had a branch in Kittery during the revolutionary period. John Kilgore came from Scotland before 1764 to live in Kittery, Maine; there he married Elizabeth Brackett in 1756. Their son Samuel was born in 1777. However, no Kilgores are buried in South Berwick cemeteries. See "Barebones" above.
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Colonel John Langdon: (5,22): Langdon (1739-1819), of Portsmouth, N.H., served in the American revolutionary army and in the Continental Congresses. He was navy agent in 1776 and used his own wealth to help outfit the army. After the war, he served in the Constitutional Convention, and then as a United States senator -- administering the oath of office to Presidents George Washington and John Adams --, and as governor of New Hampshire. His cousin, Samuel Langdon, also was an active revolutionary. Sources: Amory, The Life of James Sullivan and New Hampshire: A Guide to the Granite State.
S. E. Morison reports that Jones and Langdon got along badly because of the difficulties in outfitting the Ranger (106-111).
from Brewster's Rambles About Portsmouth, 1869.
Arthur Lee (22): The Encarta Encyclopedia identifies Lee (1740-92) as an "American statesman and diplomat, born in Stratford, Virginia. In 1766 he began the study of law and became interested in politics. As a secret agent of the Continental Congress in London during the American Revolution, he negotiated with several European governments and helped conclude a treaty with France. He served in the Virginia assembly in 1781 and in the Continental Congress from 1782 to 1785." In Chapter 19, Jones makes an enemy of Lee, one of the U.S. commissioners to France, by expressing his anger at the loss of L'Indien, and he comes to suspect that Lee is in private contact with Dickson.
Buell says that Arthur Lee was surrounded by British spies in his employ. He names Ford and also Stephen Sayre, saying they betrayed U.S. secrets and manipulated Lee to Britain's advantage (1;97-103 and 2;43). Jones learned some of these facts shortly after arriving in France in 1777, when he investigated Lee's charging Jones's friend Dr. Edward Bancroft with using knowledge in secret dispatches for personal profit. Jones's distrust of Lee apparently began early and grew during his time with the Ranger (Buell 1;88-90).
Buell asserts that Ford, Thornton, and Sayre were active in disrupting the activities of Jones and the Ranger, notably in encouraging Lieutenant Simpson to mutinous behavior that nearly led to his court-martial (Buell 1;130-40).
While this version of events corresponds with Jewett's, it is not fully confirmed by other biographers and historians. Morison sees Lee as mentally unbalanced and a bitter enemy of Jones, and his view of Stephen Sayre is similar, but neither is described as a traitor or spy. He affirms that Dr. Bancroft - Benjamin Franklin's confidential secretary - was, indeed, a spy. Nor does Morison discuss a connection between Lee and Lieutenant Simpson (See Chapter 7. See also Evan Thomas, Chapter 5).
Lee (2) An officer Jewett says General John Sullivan replaced on Long Island. The Battle of Long Island took place in 1776. General Charles Lee (1731-1782) was second in command of the Continental Army when he was captured by the British late in 1776. He remained a prisoner until 1778. After his capture, according to Jewett, General John Sullivan replaced him. The Treason of Charles Lee, George H. Moore's revelation that General Lee betrayed the Americans after his capture, appeared in 1858. (Source: Encarta Encyclopedia).
Lejay (17): In his Life of Voltaire, James Parton says: "In a large school there must be, of course, the unpopular teacher, who is not always the least worthy one. Father Lejay, professor of rhetoric of many years' standing, filled this 'rôle' in the Collége Louis-le-Grand. He was a strict, zealous, disagreeable formalist; 'a good Jesuit,' devoted to his order, who composed and compiled many large volumes, still to be seen in French libraries; a dull, plodding, ambitious man, with an ingredient in his composition of that quality which has given to the word Jesuit its peculiar meaning in modern languages." Parton goes on to tell of a famous "collision" between Voltaire and Lejay, in which Lejay is supposed to have said to young Voltaire: "Wretch! You will one day be the standard-bearer of deism in France" (37-9)!
Billy Lord (28): Jewett lists him as local man killed in New Jersey battles of 1778.
Whether Jewett had in mind a specific William or Billy Lord is difficult to determine. The Lord family web site offers these possibilities. William Wentworth Lord (b. 1761, m. Mary Allen in September 1783 Vital Records) of South Berwick, was the son of Ebenezer and Martha Lord. William Lord (b. about 1744) of South Berwick, was the son of Moses Lord. William, the son of William and Patience of Kittery, was born in about 1720. W. D. Spencer's "A List of the Revolutionary Soldiers of Berwick" (1898) lists many of the Lord family serving in the war, but no William who dies during the war.
William Lord, Jr. (b. 1760, probably the son of Samuel and Mary, m. Dorcas Faul 1784 First & Second Churches) of Berwick and later Lebanon, is listed in Fisher & Fisher for serving in the Revolutionary War.
Cato Lord (9): Black servant of the Lord family. See Cæsar above.
Ichabod Lord (31) Shown at the Mill Prison. In March of 1779, Jones helped to negotiate a prisoner exchange in which over 200 American prisoners were released. Many of these then joined Jones as crew for the Bon Homme Richard; Ichabud Lord is listed among the petty officers and able seamen. Charles Herbert indicates that Lord, from Berwick, served with him on the privateer Dolton and later with John Paul Jones (See Herbert above). Two Ichabod Lords who might be this person, are listed at the Lord family web site. One was the son of Aaron and Amy Lord, born at South Berwick, Maine in 1750. The other was the son of Nathan Lord and Elizabeth Shackley, born at South Berwick in about 1758. The York County Atlas of 1872 says Ichabod Lord served with John Paul Jones, but doesn't list him as one who was captured.
Ichabod Lord of Berwick also is listed in Fisher & Fisher as serving on a privateer, Dalton or Charming Polly (487).
John Lord (1): John Lord is presented as a young business partner of Jonathan Hamilton, and as in love with Mary Hamilton. His older brother is one of the more famous of the Nathan Lords -- see below. There were several John Lords in the Berwick area during this period, but the correct one seems to be John Lord (1764 or 1765-1815) who married Mehitable and fathered the Nathan Lord (b. 1792) who became president of Dartmouth College. See Extended Notes.
Miss Lords of the Upper Landing (29): As the other entries on the Lord family indicate, there were many Lords living in South Berwick in 1777-78, and Jewett is not always perfectly clear which ones she means. This makes it almost impossible to positively identify these Miss Lords. However, we can be reasonably confident that there were at least some young unmarried female Lords living at the Upper Landing at this time. One of these might have been Esther (b. 1758), the older sister of the John Lord who is Hamilton's business partner and who is enamored of Mary Hamilton in the novel. It is helpful to keep in mind that Jewett has shifted time and other details in re-creating the Hamiltons -- making Jonathan and Mary siblings instead of spouses, moving their early adulthood to the 1770s instead of 1780s. John Lord becomes several years older in the novel than he was in historical time, while his older sister may remain her historical age or become younger.
These likely also would be the Lords of the Upper Landing who welcome Mary, Roger, and Madam Wallingford home at the end of the novel.
Nathan Lord (6): There were several Nathan Lords in the South Berwick area during the revolutionary era. Fisher & Fisher list nine Nathan/Nathaniel/Jonathan Lords from Berwick and York who served in various capacities in the American Revolution (488-9). See Extended Notes.
Louis Quatorze (3, 23): King Louis XIV of France (1638-1715). He presided over "the golden age of France," and supported a policy of restoring a Catholic ruler in England after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. See Voltaire, The Age of Louis XIV (1756).
Louis XVI was King of France (1774-1792) when France and the United States formed a Treaty of Alliance in February 1778.
Lyman family of old York (45): Friends of Mary Hamilton and the Wallingfords. Among the prominent members of the Lyman family in the village of York, ME during the American revolution were Dr. Job Lyman (1737-1791) and Rev. Isaac Lyman (d. after 1802) of the First Parish Church. The Lyman family became connected with the Wallingford family in 1793, when Job's daughter, Hannah, married Thomas Wallingford, a grandson issuing from Colonel/Judge Thomas Wallingford and his second wife, Mary Pray.
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Jean MacDuff (3): Though Jones calls her "Auntie," Jean Macduff was Jones's mother. Jones in the novel suggests she is related to the Scots clan of Macduff. The Macduff clan of Scotland was memorialized in William Shakespeare's Macbeth, where Macduff leads in the defeat of Macbeth, usurper of the Scottish throne. This play is based on historical events of the 11th century.
John Marr (28): This local man is reported missing in New Jersey battles of 1778 (Ch. 28). In fact there was a John Marr of Kittery (1720 - c. 1778), though it has not been confirmed that he died while serving in the Revolutionary Army. See Extended Notes.
McIntire of York (3): The McIntire family of York (Ch. 3) were Royalist exiles of the old Cromwell times who took in Master Sullivan when he came to Maine. Though it seems clear that Jewett consulted Thomas Amory's biography of John Sullivan for much of her information about Master Sullivan, here she seems to depart from that source, which says that Sullivan went to work for a Mr. Nowell. The McIntire family of York, however, would be a good choice to associate with Master Sullivan. Several McIntires, according to family histories on the Internet, were deported by Oliver Cromwell after the Battle of Dunbar in 1650. These included Micum (Malcolm) McIntire who settled near York, Maine in the 1660s.
Mr. Moody (3): Probably the minister who helped Master Sullivan to his first teaching post after his arrival in America is the Reverend Samuel Moody, who was minister of the first parish at York, from 1700 to 1747, according to James Sullivan, The History of the District of Maine (238-9). See Extended Notes.
Robert Morris (22): The Encarta Encyclopedia identifies Morris (1734-1806) as an "American financier, born in Liverpool. Morris went to America in 1747 and soon attained a prominent position in American commerce. He became politically active in the period before the American Revolution. As a member of the Continental Congress from 1776 to 1778, he signed the Declaration of Independence. From 1781 to 1784 Morris supervised the finances of the war, a task he fulfilled largely on the basis of his personal credit. In 1781 he established, in Philadelphia, the Bank of North America, the oldest financial institution in the United States. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and served (1789-95) in the U.S. Senate. Having lost his money in land speculation, Morris spent three years in a debtors prison, and he died in comparative penury in Philadelphia."
Captain Moulton (6): In Chapter 6, Captain Moulton leads a troop of men from Old York to serve in the Revolutionary Army. An Internet history of the York Militia confirms this: "On April 21, 1775, Captain Johnson Moulton's York Minutemen Company mustered sixty-three men on the Village Green and marched to the aid of the Middlesex farmers who had "fired the shot heard 'round the world." The York Militia was, therefore, the first organized military company from Maine to answer the "call to arms" in the Revolutionary War."
See also the York County Atlas for 1872, p. 114.
Fisher & Fisher lists Johnson Moulton as achieving the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. He was twice married and died in York, 1793 (564).://www.1styorkmilitia.org/history.htm
Mrs. Mullet (36): housekeeper for Mr. Fairfax at Bath. No information has been found to suggest she is based on an historical person.
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Lord Newburgh (35-6): James Bartholomew 3rd (or 4th in some sources) Earl of Newburgh (1725-1786) was the son of Charles Radcliffe by his second wife, Charlotte, Countess of Newburgh. James Radcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater, was Newburgh's uncle. Newburgh married Barbara Kempe in 1749; she received the estate at Slindon from her father as a wedding gift.
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The old Indian (10): Jewett says this last descendant of the chief Passaconaway made Mary's birch canoe and taught her to use it well. In this way, Mary's inheritance of the best of the past is extended to include native wisdom. The historical existence of this descendant has not been established. In Changes in the Land 1983, William Cronon indicates that Native Americans in southern Maine made dug-out canoes from chestnut, while further north, where paper birch trees were available, they made lighter birch-bark canoes (45-6). See below for Passaconaway.
old Pretender (3): James Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766) was the son of King James II (Deposed in 1688 in the Glorious Revolution, and replaced by the Protestants William and Mary of Orange). He held court in exile sometimes in Spain, sometimes in France, and was recognized by both as King James III of England. He was called "The Old Pretender" for this and to distinguish him from his son, Charles Edward Stuart, "The Young Pretender" or "Bonnie Prince Charlie."
In the 1745 Jacobite uprising, Charles Edward and his Irish friend, John William O'Sullivan, attempted and failed to restore the Old Pretender to the throne. O'Sullivan is a cousin of Master John Sullivan.
(Research assistance: Gabe Heller).
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Passaconaway (10): In "The Old Town of Berwick," Jewett identifies Passaconaway as "the great sachem" of the Berwick region when the first English explorer, Martin Pring, visited the site of the town in 1603. Sullivan in The History of the District of Maine summarizes Dr. Belknap's history of New Hampshire on Chief Passaconaway, the last known general chief in the area of Berwick, "who presided over a number of lesser sachems" (92).
Mr. Paul (13): The lame fiddler and neighbor of the woman Dr. Green goes to visit on Sligo Point before leaving Dover. Dickson also has heard the story the doctor tells of the woman's auctioning off her neighbors. In 1839, according to Stackpole's "Sligo and Vicinity," there were people named Paul living in the area (41).
Peggy (4): main female servant in the Hamilton House. No information has been found to suggest she is based on an historical person.
Sir William Pepperrell / Pepperell (1696-1759) (1, 7, 38):
"American merchant, statesman, and soldier, born in Kittery Point, Massachusetts (now in Maine). Largely self-educated, he was appointed chief justice of Massachusetts in 1730, where he served on the governor's council from 1727 to 1759. See Extended Notes.
Phoebe (8): Haggens family servant.
Mr. Philpot (10): Old Mr. Philpot compliments Mary on her handling of her boat in Ch. 10. Though it seems impossible to identify this particular Mr. Philpot, there was indeed a Philpot family prominent in the Somersworth and South Berwick area during the American Revolution. Internet family histories identify Captain James Philpot (1699-1747), his son Richard (1738-1766), and Richard's son John (1757-1841). None of these three could easily have been called Old Mr. Philpot in 1777-8, but there were a number of other men in this family for whom life dates are not available. See Catalfo on the James Philpot House (240-5).
During Jewett's lifetime, there were at least two gundalow captains named Philpot operating on the river between Portsmouth and South Berwick. Captain Charles Philpot owned the "Weston"; his daughter's birth is recorded in Berwick Vital Records, 7 September 1887. Captain H. A. Philpot is reported in the Portsmouth Journal in 1893, as owner of a steam-powered gundalow, the "Fannie P." See also Richard E. Winslow and Robert A. Whitehouse, Piscataqua Gundalow Log of Newspaper Clippings. (Research assistance: Wendy Pirsig)
La Motte Piqué (23): When Jones arrived at Brest, he met a French escort commanded by Chef d'Escadre La Motte Piquet (Morison 129-30).
Parson Pike (29): In "The Old Town of Berwick," Jewett identifies Mr. James Pike: "the first grammar school master of Berwick (Harvard, 1725), was called as minister to Somersworth in 1730; and it may possibly have been not until then that [Master] Sullivan took his place." This Parson Pike might seem rather old to take such an active role in rescuing Madam Wallingford; but since James Pike (1702-1792) lived ninety years, he may well have been able to help defend Madam Wallingford at the age of about 75.
In Master Tate's diary, Parson Pike is performing local marriages in 1777. "Tuesday evening, August 1777, Mr. David Hanson of Dover married to Mrs. Mary Roberts of Somersworth by the Reverend James Pike." "Master Tate's Diary" also gives the death of the wife of Nicholas Gilman, Molly, 28 December 1777. Nicholas Gilman was Jewett's great-grandfather on her mother's side. Molly was the daughter of Rev. James Pike; this would suggest that Rev. Pike was Jewett's great-great-grandfather.
Plaisteds (16): The Plaisted family was well-known for establishing one of the early garrison farms among "the Plantations of the Piscataqua and the Salmon Falls Rivers." Roger Plaisted and his son, Roger, died in a fight with Indians in October 1675; their graves on the farm are marked by a well-known Plaisted stone. The Plaisted Garrison, says Jewett, was "occupied later for several generations by the Wallingford family." (The Old Town of Berwick). Jewett lists the family among those who were early settlers in Berwick and who had members captured by Indians and taken to Canada. See Hetty Goodwin.
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Racine (17): Jean Racine (1639-1699), a French playwright; one of his best-known plays is Phèdre (1677).
Charles Radcliffe (30): Charles Radcliffe (1693-1746), brother of James Radcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater, and a cousin of James III, took part in the Jacobite rising of 1715, commanding the Earl of Derwentwater's troops at a young age (See Earl of Derwentwater, above). Taken prisoner at the battle of Preston, he was convicted of high treason, but escaped from Newgate prison in December of 1716. He continued his Jacobite activities in his European exile, becoming well-known at the "court" of James III. He married "the wealthy Charlotte Maria Livingstone, the Countess of Newburgh, in Brussels in 1724." He returned to Scotland for the uprising of 1745, but was captured at sea and beheaded on Tower Hill -- under his previous sentence of treason -- in December 1746. (Source: http://cll.ncl.ac.uk/jacobites/biogs/index.htm)
For a detailed reconstruction of the life of Charles Radcliffe, see Anya Seton's novel, Devil Water (1962).
Corporal John Ricker (28): This is local man named as killed in New Jersey battles in 1778. There was a prominent Ricker family in the Berwick area during the Revolution. In 1790, Captain Ebenezer Ricker, a Somersworth merchant captain, built a house that remains today in Rollinsford and that came to be known as the Ricker Inn. During the Revolution, a John Ricker actually lived in the Somersworth, NH area, according to a Ricker family web site. He was married to Eleanor (1733-1805). John Drew Ricker, son of Joshua and Bettey was baptized in July 1760. James & Reuben Ricker, according to Buell, served under Jones on The Ranger. W. D. Spencer's "A List of the Revolutionary Soldiers of Berwick" (1898) does not list a John Ricker as serving from the Berwick area, but Fisher and Fisher list a Jonathan Ricker who performed political service (660). They also list a Reuben Ricker of Berwick as serving on the Ranger (660). (Research assistance: Wendy Pirsig).
It appears that Jewett took care in naming local casualties of the Revolution to use family names that are familiar to South Berwick, but to choose given names that did not belong to people known to have died in the war.
Rockingham, Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of (1730-82) (32): He served as prime minister of England for several periods. Encarta Encyclopedia says "His government is best known for its repeal of the Stamp Act and its passage of other measures to conciliate the American colonies. In 1766 he resigned the ministry; for many years Rockingham was an opponent of the policies of Lord North (prime minister from 1770 to 1782) and King George III. These policies were antagonistic to the American colonies and provoked the American Revolution (1775-83). Throughout North's ministry Rockingham showed friendship for America."
Rodney (10): Chief house servant (Negro slave) to Madam Wallingford.
Catalfo notes that the town of Rollinsford attempted to purchase the services of Madam Wallingford's "Negro slave" for a maximum of $50, to serve in the Revolutionary army (161).
Mr. Rogers (8): Mr. Rogers is identified as a neighbor of Tilly Haggens. "The Diary of Master Joseph Tate" says: "Mr. John Higgins raised a new house at the turn of the ways near Mr. Robert Rodgers on Berwick side on Thursday, April 7, 1774." This seems likely to be Haggens's elderly neighbor. Vital Records of Berwick ... records the marriage of a Robert Rodgers with Mrs. Esther Lord, daughter of Nathan Lord Jr. and Mrs. Ester Lord of Berwick on 26 February 1771, and records several children born thereafter, suggesting that this Mr. Rogers was not so old (283). There are other candidates for this Mr. Rogers, e.g., Captain William Rogers, a somewhat older man, but Tate's statement would seem to carry a good deal of weight.
Mr. Rollins (29): Rollins is identified as Parson Pike's chief parishioner, presumably in Somersworth, where Pike was serving. This is likely to be Ichabod Rollins. See Extended Notes.
Monsieur Rousseau (17): Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) is best known for his contributions to political philosophy, notably in his Social Contract (1762). Born in Geneva, Switzerland, Rousseau lived much of his life in France. (Research: Travis Feltman)
Russells (34): In Journal and Letters of ... Samuel Curwen, Ward says the Loyalist, Dr. Charles Russell: "son of Hon. James Russell, of Charlestown, succeeded to his uncle Judge Chambers Russell's estate at Lincoln; graduated at Harvard College, 1757; married Elizabeth, only child of Col. Henry Vassall, of Cambridge; sailed for Martinique in April, 1775; was proscribed in the Massachusetts banishment act of 1778; was a physician at Antigua, where he died in 1780" (514). His uncle Chambers (d. 1767) was not a Tory refugee, but he was a prominent legislator and judge in colonial Massachusetts. Sabine in The American Loyalists lists other Massachusetts Russells who were Loyalists: Ezekiel Russell, a Boston printer; James Russell, of Charlestown, a judge.
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Lord Sandwich (32): Mme. Wallingford scorns this peer in Chapter 32 for his mistreatment of American Loyalists. She probably refers to John Montagu (1718-1792), 4th Earl of Sandwich.
Lord Sandwich served in the government as Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, First Lord of the Admiralty, and Secretary of State. He was First Lord of the Admiralty during the American Revolution, when he was notorious for scandal in the Admiralty and was considered responsible for failures of the British Navy during this war. (See: George Martelli and Jemmy Twitcher, A life of the Fourth Earl of Sandwich, 1962.)
Patrick Sarsfield (3), the great Earl of Lucan, at Limerick: According to The Catholic Encyclopedia the Irishman, Patrick Sarsfield (1650-1693) fought in the cause of King James II of England, a deposed Catholic trying to regain the throne. For his defense of Limerick - where Master John Sullivan's father fought - against King William of England, James II named him Earl of Lucan. He later commanded the Irish Brigades in France under King James II. (Research: Gabe Heller.)
Sayward family of old York (45): Friends of Mary and the Wallingfords who welcome them home. In the sketch of Madam Wallingford in Extended Notes, one sees that her mother was Hannah Sayward. This family is represented still in York by the Sayward-Wheeler house (SPNEA) which was the home of Jonathan Sayward (d. 1797), soldier, merchant, and local leader. SPNEA says "Sayward participated in the attack on the French fortress at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia, in 1745 [King George's War], served in the Massachusetts legislature, and despite outspoken Tory views, retained the respect of his neighbors during the Revolution."
A Noble and Dignified Stream" (York Historical Society 1992) says that the Sayward-Wheeler house in York, Maine, was built in about 1720 and owned by Jonathan Sayward from about 1735 until his death in 1797. The house was left to his oldest grandson, Jonathan Sayward Barrell, a merchant like his grandfather. Upon his death in 1857, the house passed to his unmarried daughters, the Barrell sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, then in their fifties (64-66). They were friends of Jewett, and are thought by some to be the models for the sisters in Jewett's story, "The Dulham Ladies."
Lord Selkirk and the Countess of Selkirk (2,22):
Lord Selkirk was the local peer and member of the House of Lords from the neighborhood of John Paul Jones's birth. Most accounts of Jones's life give considerable attention to his plan of capturing Lord Selkirk and holding him hostage for the release of captured American sailors. The attempt takes place April 24, 1778, immediately after the attack on Whitehaven. S. E. Morison discusses this event in Chapter 8 of John Paul Jones. He points out that St. Mary's Island is actually a peninsula. He says, "Dunbar Hamilton of Baldoon ... became the fourth Earl of Selkirk in 1744. His wife, whom he married in 1758, was Lady Helen Hamilton." Morison argues that Jones's plan to use Lord Selkirk as a hostage was naive (143-4). In Diary of Ezra Green is an eye-witness account of John Paul Jones's unwilling plundering of the Earl of Selkirk's plate and his extraordinary efforts to return it. See also Evan Thomas, John Paul Jones, Chapters 6-7.
Marchioness de Sévigné (22): Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné (1626-1696). Her correspondence with her daughter, more than 1500 letters, was published between 1725 and 1734.
Sewalls (34): This prominent Boston family included merchants, professors, judges, and government officials. In Journal and Letters of ... Samuel Curwen, Ward gives particular attention to the Loyalist, Jonathan Sewall (1728-1796), a Harvard graduate (1748), who went into teaching and then law, serving as attorney general of colonial Massachusetts. By marriage, he was related to John Hancock. Ward reports that Jonathan Sewall brought the first successful case of Negro slave suing his master for his freedom. He left America in 1775, was proscribed in the Conspirator's Act of 1779, and resided in Bristol during the Revolution (463-4). Ward also mentions Samuel Sewall (1745-1811), a friend of Jonathan in exile. Samuel was a Harvard graduate (1761) and a lawyer. He was banished in 1778, lived part of his exile in Bristol, and forfeited a substantial estate in Massachusetts (506).
Elder Shackley (9, 29): Mary visits him in Rocky Hills, having heard he was ill. He is among Madam Wallingford's defenders when the mob attacks her house. In "The Old Town of Berwick," Jewett quotes a description of Elder Richard Shackley, "ye last of ye Elders": "He was a man of very grave countenance of the old Puritan stamp (which does not seem to appear very often in the Piscataqua plantations), sound in the faith, and very tenacious of his Hopkinsian opinions. He used to wear a red cap in church, and when he heard a minister whose preaching he relished, he would rise in his seat, which was beneath the pulpit, and stand there looking intently at the preacher. When not pleased, he would keep his seat."
A Hodsdon family web site shows two men named Richard Shackley in the South Berwick area during the Revolutionary era. The elder married Hannah Hodsdon on 17 Nov. 1709. Richard Shackley, Jr., was a witness of Margaret Goodwin's will in 1794.
Sherburne (8): According to Nancy Haggens, family friends of the Wallingfords, it would seem in Boston, but possibly in Portsmouth. This family has not been identified. Assistance is welcome.
Spencers (16): This family is listed in Chapter 16 among those who were early settlers in Berwick and who had members captured by Indians and taken to Canada. See Hetty Goodwin.
Bailli Suffren (21): Pierre André de Suffren de Saint-Tropez (1729-1788) was a French admiral who served under C. H. d'Estaing during the American Revolution, and afterwards in India in 1781 against the British. Remembered for his daredevil maneuvers in battle, he was an Alderman of the Knights of Malta, as indicated by his title Bailli. (Research: Travis Feltman; source: Encyclopedia Britannica Online)
Master Sullivan and his family (2): John Sullivan (1692-1796) and his wife Old Margery (c. 1714 - 1801), settled in the Pine Hill area of Berwick, where Master John taught school for many years while Margery managed the farm. Two of their sons, John (2) and James (2), achieved fame as soldiers and politicians. See Extended Notes.
Duke de Sully, Marshal of France (17):
After the publication of The Tory Lover, Jewett expressed the wish to change her reference to the Duke de Sully, making him the Duke of Berwick. In a letter to Marie Thérèse Blanc, dated February-March 1903, Jewett wrote: "I wonder if it is too late to make a change or two in the French edition of my Tory Lover? On the 23rd page [Chapter 2], for example, where (3rd line from the foot) I say Prince of Conti, I should like to say Duke of Berwick, and on p. 154 [Chapter 17] is a gap in the edition I sent Mlle Douesnel [her translator] and in your first edition a great mistake on the middle of the page! I said Duke de Sully at a venture and never corrected it until the second edition where the whole phrase was cut out. That should be Duke of Berwick too or read thus: 'added the old Irish rebel, who had been like a son to his father's friend the great Duke of Berwick, Marshal of France." (Cary, Letters, 153).
According to Parton's Life of Voltaire, both the Duc de Sully and the Prince of Conti are described as among "the Epicureans of the Temple," a part of Paris made up of the remains of the monastery of the Templars, known in Voltaire's time as a center of pleasure for intellectuals and artists (vol. I, 53-5). The actual Duke de Sully was served by Voltaire's father, who was a notary, and acted as Voltaire's protector on several occasions when his writing got him into trouble at court. This relationship ended when the Duke refused to take Voltaire's part after he was assaulted by an enemy outside the Duke's house (Parton I, 185).
Susan [Cooper] (10): Woman servant of Madam Wallingford. No information has been found to indicate she is based on an historical person.
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Le Tellier, the king's confessor (17): Michel Le Tellier (1643-1719), the confessor to Louis XIV, was a Jesuit who fought vehemently against Jansenism. Having served as a professor and rector at the Collége Louis-le-Grand, he was appointed to the position of Louis XIV's confessor in 1709, succeeding Father La Chaise. He used his influence to convince the king to persecute Protestants as well as Jansenists. According to James Parton's Life of Voltaire, Le Tellier was mainly responsible for the destruction of the Jansenist convent at Port Royal in 1709 (see Places). In The Age of Louis XIV, Voltaire characterizes Le Tellier as "son of an attorney of Vire in Lower Normandy, a melancholy, fervent, and obstinate man, who concealed his passions beneath a cold exterior; he did all the harm that is possible to do in such a post, where it is but too easy to urge what one desires oneself and ruin those that one hates" (Ch. 37). Voltaire says that as King Louis aged, Le Tellier gained more influence, and his vindictiveness led to importuning the king even on his death bed. (Research assistance: Travis Feltman).
Ben Thompson (13): Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford (1753-1814). According to the Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, the American born scientist left the colonies in 1776, because he opposed the American rebellion, and was knighted for service to England in 1784. He then "became aide-de-camp to the elector of Bavaria. During his 11 years in Bavaria, Thompson reorganized the Bavarian army, abolished mendicancy in Munich, and established workhouses for the poor. In 1791 the elector made Thompson a count of the Holy Roman Empire." See Extended Notes.
John Thornton (20, 41): One of Arthur Lee's personal secretaries, the one who, according to Buell, betrayed the secret of the building of L'Indien and, thus, insured its loss just as Jones was about to take command (1;99). It appears that already in Chapter 20 of The Tory Lover, Jones suspects Thornton. Louis W. Potts in Arthur Lee: A Virtuous Revolutionary (1981) affirms that in the summer of 1778, it came out that Thornton was paid to inform the British of "movements of the French fleet" (204-5). This revelation was part of a very complex conflict between Arthur Lee and Benjamin Franklin. When Thornton was exposed, he was replaced with Hezekiah Ford (see above). Part of the complication was that Dr. Edward Bancroft, Franklin's secretary, was the "master spy" for the British on the American Commission, and that he was manipulating people and events to preserve his valuable position. See also Evan Thomas, especially Ch. 7.
Titcomb (31): Jewett describes Titcomb as a sailor in the Mill Prison in Chapter 31. She says he had served on the Yankee Hero (captured June 1776) and was impressed on a British man-of-war before being delivered to the prison. Charles Herbert writes in April 1778: "Also, this afternoon William Titcomb, a Newbury man, came to see us, about half an hour, and very glad was I to see him. He was taken in the Yankee Hero, by the Milford. He informs us that he has belonged to the Milford ever since he was taken, and he has been present at the capture of four American privateers. Upon their passage home, they took a vessel, which was one of the Civil Usage's prizes. The Milford arrived about three weeks ago. Titcomb has been unwell, and has been in the royal hospital most of the time since he arrived. He told us that he had rather be in our situation than his" (Chapter 11; See Charles Herbert above).
Parson Tompson (1): Rev. John Tompson (1739-1828). See Extended Notes.
Lord Trimlestown (30): See above, Lord Gormanstown.
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Voltaire ... Le petit Arouet (17): Voltaire, (François-Marie Arouet, 1694-1778), according to the Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, "was the most influential figure of the French Enlightenment." He is best known, perhaps, for his novella, Candide (1766). See notes to Chapter 17.
Madam Elizabeth and Judge Wallingford (2):
The Wallingford family website says "Elizabeth was born 15 September 1718, in Hampton, Rockingham County, New Hampshire. Her parents were from Hampton Falls, N.H. before moving to York, Maine around the time Elizabeth was born. Elizabeth was the daughter of Joseph Swett and Hannah Sayward.
Thomas Wallingford (1697-1771) lived most of his life in Somersworth, N.H. and was buried in the Salmon Falls old town cemetery in Rollinsford, N.H. Having lost his first two wives, he married Elizabeth Swett (1718-1810) in about 1754.
Wallingford family servants named in the novel:
Susan (Cooper in ch. 15)
Rodney (ch. l, slave)
See Extended Notes.
Roger Wallingford (based on Samuel) (2): See Thomas and Elizabeth above and also the crew list for the Ranger.
Mr. Warner (22) This mutual acquaintance of Benjamin Franklin and Roger Wallingford is Colonel Jonathan Warner (1726-1814), whose Warner family mansion remains in Portsmouth, N.H. Colonel Warner was a prominent citizen of Portsmouth, serving on the King's Council. He married Mary Macpheadris, daughter of the house's builder and grand-daughter of New Hampshire's Royal Governor, John Wentworth, in 1754. According to Charles Brewster's Rambles About Portsmouth #25, the Warner house "is provided with a lightning rod, which was put up in 1762 under the personal inspection of Doctor Benjamin Franklin -- and was probably the first put up in New Hampshire."
Gideon Warren (31) a Berwick sailor in the Mill Prison. In March of 1779, Jones helped to negotiate a prisoner exchange in which over 200 American prisoners were released. Many of these then joined Jones as crew for the Bon Homme Richard. Warren is not on Buell's roster of this crew, but he does appear on Herbert's list of prisoners taken from the Brigantine Dolton.
"The Diary of Master Joseph Tate" records the death of a Gideon Warren's son in the Somersworth area on 4 May 1773, by drowning "in the Tan pit."
George Washington (1732-1799) (2): Commander of the American Revolutionary Army and first President of the United States (1789-1797).
Mr. Wentworth (1): The Wentworths were a prominent family in this region and among the original settlers. It is likely the somewhat impolitic Mr. Wentworth is Joseph Wentworth, whose 1750 house stands in Somersworth, N.H. (New Hampshire: A Guide to the Granite State, 273). However, "Master Tate's Diary" mentions Colonel John Wentworth of Somersworth as a slave owner, January 17, 1775, and the death of his wife in July 1775 . He also records on June 19, 1775, that "Captain Jonathan Wentworth's company of Somersworth marched for Cambridge."
Miss Elizabeth (Betsey) Wyat (4): In "The Old Town of Berwick," Jewett says: "I remember in my childhood a low headstone near by, which bore the name of 'Elizabeth Wyat, 18 years.' It has quite disappeared with the old apple-tree that it leaned against, but I remember my father's telling me that he had heard from very old people that Elizabeth Wyat was a most beautiful and lovable young creature, whose early death had given the deepest sorrow to all her friends. I somehow take unreasonable pleasure in writing here this brief record, which perhaps no one could write but myself. Her dust long years ago was turned into pink and white apple blossoms against the blue sky, and these, in their turn, faded and fell on the green grass beneath." Blanchard in Sarah Orne Jewett points out that Miss Wyat (Wiatt) died in 1713 (343). Judge Benjamin Chadbourne's "History of the Town of Berwick," reports that this date appeared on the headstone: "Eliza Wyatt, age 18 died March 15, 1713." Vital Records of Berwick ... says "Elizabeth Wyatt, daughter of John & Elizabeth, aged about 18 years, 15 March 1713" (306).
These notes would not be possible without extensive help from many people and organizations. The Berwick Academy, Coe College, the Old Berwick Historical Society, the Jewett-Eastman Memorial Committee, the Portsmouth Atheneum, the South Berwick Public Library, and others provided material and intellectual support and facilities. Members of the Old Berwick Historical Society, especially Tim and Karen Benoit, Rick Coughlin, Brad Fletcher, Norma Keim, Wendy Pirsig, and Nancy and Gary Wetzel, also provided material and intellectual support. The Soceity for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, in the persons of Martha Sulya and Jan Harney, helped with the research. Travis Feltman became my researcher on the French setting and characters. Graham Frater has done wonderful research and photography for the British settings. Many others are unnamed here, though their names may be seen scattered among the various notes where they made special contributions. What is best about these materials I owe to these good friends and partners.
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Terry Heller, Coe College
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