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Texts Related to the Works of Sarah Orne Jewett

From Emma Lewis Coleman, New England Captives Carried to Canada, 1925.

The Salmon Falls raid of 1690 and the fates of its captives.

Introduction to Coleman

          Emma Lewis Coleman completed C. Alice Baker's (1833-1909) work of researching the fates of New England captives of the French and Indian Wars.  The selection that follows is from Coleman's book that incorporates and extends her friend's research.

          Their work was important to Jewett especially because of what their research uncovered about the captivity of Hetty Goodwin.  The Goodwin story was so important to Jewett that she tells it or alludes to it in several of her works:
        "Tame Indians" 1875 
        "York Garrison: 1640" 1886
       Betty Leicester 1890
        "Old Town of Berwick" 1894
       The Tory Lover 1901
It is likely that Coleman and Baker's work uncovered the story of Hetty Goodwin's sojourn in Canada between Jewett's writing of "The Old Town of Berwick" (1894) and The Tory Lover (1901).  In the earlier text, Jewett reported the oral tradition that Goodwin had remarried in Canada and that she bore children there, who later lived in Portsmouth, NH.  Everett Stackpole learned of Baker's research while working on his 1903 Old Kittery and her Families.  He included in his account the letter reproduced below, telling of Goodwin's re-baptism in the Roman Catholic Church, but showing no record of her having married.  Jewett may have had other reasons for suppressing the story of Goodwin's second marriage, but it is possible that she did not mention this in The Tory Lover, because she no longer believed it to be true.
          In Sarah Orne Jewett, Paula Blanchard writes that Emma Lewis Coleman "was a photographer and Baker a historian; the three summered at York [ME] together.  In 1883-86 Jewett and the others collaborated in staging a series of photographs in the [François] Millet style: local models, or sometimes Miss Baker, would dress up in period costume and Coleman would photograph them at everyday rural tasks. Reconstructing historic conditions as accurately as possible, the group also followed Millet in creating images intended to express the beauty and dignity of rural life.  The results were obviously staged and entirely lacked the heroic aura of Millet's peasants, but Jewett was pleased with them.  A few years later she persuaded Houghton Mifflin to use the photographs as illustrations in an 1893 edition of Deephaven" (225-6).



 



An old blockhouse.
Illustration from Coleman.


Volume 1, CHAPTER I

THE WARS -- DEFENCE

          "THE real cause of contentions among men is the ambition to take what does not belong to them." In the seventeenth, as alas in the twentieth century, men killed each other for that ambition. The beginning of hostilities between the French and English in North America was in 1613 -- seven years before the Mayflower came. The end was the Peace of Paris in 1763. The beginning was in Acadia, so-called, at Somes Sound, Mount Desert, when Captain Argall cut down at Saint-Sauveur the cross which had been placed there by the little colony of Jesuits and courtiers who had been sent out by the pious Madame de Guercheville.

          The last intercolonial war ended with the Cession of Canada. In all the wars captives, mostly women and children, were carried from New England to Canada.
          The friendship between the Indians and whites, both French and English, was doubtless based upon trade. Both colonies were eager to buy furs. Each was jealous of the other and so the chief cause of our intercolonial trouble was commercial. This is shown by the reports sent to Versailles by the governors of Canada. They are always afraid that the English and Dutch "by means of the cheap bargains they can give (1) will become masters of all the peltries thereby destroying the industry upon which Canada sub-sists." (2)
 
PHILIP'S WAR. 1675-1678.
TREATY OF FALMOUTH, SIGNED UNDER "THE SMOKING TREE"
NEAR LONG CREEK BETWEEN PORTLAND AND SCARBOROUGH.
          It was in this, a strictly Indian war, that the first captives were carried to Canada. After the death of Philip his scattered followers sold their New England prisoners to the French. If the Indians had not profited by the ransoms paid for the group of Hatfield and Deerfield people there would have been less suffering in later wars. They boasted that if they were successful "Canada Indians" would follow them.
 
FIRST INTERCOLONIAL WAR -- KING WILLIAM'S, 1688 - 1697.
"THE DECADE OF SORROWS." PEACE OF RYSWICK.
          "Canada Indians," however, did not "follow" for eleven years. Then the war between France and England was brought over to their colonies. The right of William and Mary to the English throne was disputed by Louis XIV, who upheld James II. Apparently some New Englanders were less concerned than he, for a bold pamphlet was printed in London in 1691 entitled: "The Humble Address of the Publicans of New England to which King you please with some Remarks Upon it." But as the "Publicans" were uncertain whom they were humbly addressing, so had been their King two years earlier when he sent Letters of Instruction "To Such as for the Time being take Care for preserving the Peace and Administering the Laws in Our Colony of the Massachusetts Bay in New England in America."
          During this war many of our people travelled the long, sad road to Canada. Of the first summer's campaign Governor de Denonville reported that because "of the good understanding he has had through two Jesuits with the Indians who occupy the woods in the neighborhood of Boston, (3) and who are disposed to become Christians, he has been able . . . to seize, exclusive of Pemkuit, sixteen forts." (4) This sounds boastful! After the massacre at Dover, which was an Indian revenge, attacks were made by French soldiers and Mission Indians, usually led by French officers and often aided by priestly zeal, on Pemaquid, Salmon Falls and Casco Bay; then on York, Oyster River and Groton; while all the time there was frontier warfare between the Connecticut River on the western and the Kennebec on the eastern border.
          In May, 1697, at a castle belonging to William III near the village of Ryswick, a treaty was signed and peace came slowly across the seas. Four years later the ambition of Louis XIV to keep the crown of Spain for his grandson plunged all western Europe into the "War of the Spanish Succession" which in the New World became:
 
THE SECOND INTERCOLONIAL WAR --
QUEEN ANNE'S OR GOVERNOR DUDLEY'S WAR, 1702-1713.
PEACE OF UTRECHT.
          New England bore its stress. Her settlements were scattered, unprotected and easily reached; weaker than New York, who had powerful friends in the Indians of the Five Nations (the Iroquois), she often received cruel punishment in revenge for Indian attacks upon Canada. It is difficult to understand how a civilized people could identify themselves with savage warfare, especially a people who knew the horrors of torture and massacre as did those of New France; but we must remember that the French believed the Iroquois were instigated by the colonists of New York and that Frontenac counted us all one people, "so if Albany provokes Canada they count it just to fall upon Massachusetts or any other Eastern Plantation." (5)  New France asserted that she did not wait to be attacked. It was her way to strike terror rather than to be disturbed herself, knowing well that the Abenakis at a trifling expense could "greatly inconvenience" New England. To realize her success we need only mention the "inconvenience" at Wells, Deerfield, Haverhill, and all the border raids of this war. Scarcely a village escaped.
          In 1713 the Treaty of Utrecht brought peace of a sort. But the treaty did not settle important questions for the Western Continent where always the great issue was that of domination -- French or English. But perhaps the Indian allegiance was of more vital interest to the people of that generation. The Five Nations were called British subjects, but the Abenakis of northern New England, claimed by both powers, were by French policy left within the boundaries of Maine.
 
THREE YEARS' WAR,
OR GOVERNOR DUMMER'S -- FATHER RALE'S -- LOVEWELL'S, 1722-1725/6.
TREATY OF BOSTON.
          By all these names has this war been called. The quarrel was between the two provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire and the Eastern Indians, especially those of Norridgewock.
          The French openly had no part in it for the two Crowns were at peace, but when in 1724 the Norridgewocks asked for help Louis XIV wrote that while it is not expedient that France appear in this war, yet it is proper that Sr. de Vaudreuil "do secretly encourage the other nations to assist the Abenakis" by telling them that the English intend to become masters of the whole continent and to enslave all the Indian nations. (6) In revenge for the attempt to capture Father Rale the Indians burned the village of Brunswick, and then Massachusetts declared war. People were killed and prisoners taken from the eastern settlements and from far-away Northfield. Norridgewock was burned and Father Rale killed, although orders had been given to spare his life. Three of the four officers in command of the little troop had been captives in earlier wars. They were Captains Harmon and Moulton and Lieutenant Bean or Bane.
          There were fewer atrocities in this war. The priest's intervention may have prevented some, but the chief reason was Governor Shute's order that non-combatants be removed from exposed places. (7)
          When M. de Vaudreuil was consulted about a peace he answered that it did not concern the French, (8) and the Mission Indians of his country refused the belts of peace because they "wished to continue to harass the English." Nevertheless, in the Council Chamber at Boston in December, 1725, Dummer's treaty -- now in the State House -- was signed by four eastern sagamores and Lieutenant-Governor Dummer, who had been acting since 1723, when Shute ran away to England. Were these the four Indians who were presented two years later with elegant clothing? "A Broad Cloth Coat Trimd with Silver Lace" and three blankets similarly adorned; with ruffled shirts and "a hatt with gold lace?" (9)
 
THIRD INTERCOLONIAL WAR -- KING GEORGE'S WAR -- SHIRLEY'S OR FIVE YEARS' WAR -- LOCALLY THE OLD FRENCH AND INDIAN.
IN EUROPE THE WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION, 
1744-1748.
PEACE OF AIX-LA-CHAPELLE.
          Frederick of Prussia began it. The shot he fired in Silesia in 1741 was heard the whole world over. Almost all the European powers became involved, and ultimately fire and carnage were brought again to our border.
          After Norridgewock was burned the savages went to Canada "in deplorable condition," assuring the governor that so long as there is an Abenaki in the world they will fight the English; and the governor assures Versailles that they will do it unless the English destroy their forts and cease their encroachments. (10) Nevertheless, during the next twenty years New England was not much disturbed, partly because French influence had been somewhat lessened and partly because of better trading-houses and fairer treatment under Dummer's direction.
          Thirty-five separate bands of Indians, counting from six to thirty-six men, were sent out in the winter and spring of 1746. They were sent "in the direction of Orange," or "to strike a blow towards Boston." Much property was destroyed and some scalps, but not many prisoners, were brought back, says the French report. (11)
          The treaty said: "All things shall be restored," but Frederick kept Silesia. In August, 1748, Canada, learning that the war was over, notified the nations that they were to send no more war parties to New England, and that they would not be paid for prisoners or scalps. But the Government feared that the domiciliated Abenakis might continue their hostilities, not having satisfied their revenge for the warriors they had lost. (12)
 
FOURTH INTERCOLONIAL WAR.
IN EUROPE, THE SEVEN YEARS' WAR;
IN THE COLONIES, THE LAST FRENCH AND INDIAN
WAR. I755/6-1763.
THE PEACE OF PARIS.
          This, the sixth and last Indian war of the century, was almost continuous with that which preceded it for the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which was ratified by the Indians at Falmouth, was little more than a truce. The boundaries between Canada and the British colonies were still undetermined.
          War was declared against the Penobscots in 1755, England making her declaration against France the next year. The general cause was the alleged encroachments of the French upon the English frontiers. Nova Scotia, ceded to Great Britain in 1713, was still claimed by France. Fort St. Frederick (Crown Point) was being strengthened, and forts were building from the head of the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi River. But hostile acts did not wait upon hostile words, and we find in that smaller part of the drama which concerns our writing that New Englanders were carried to Canada as early as 1750. It was in 1760, after the war was over, that the last captives made "the doleful journey."
          For the French and English in America the questions of a century and a half had been answered on the Heights of Abraham.
Notes for Chapter I

1.   See Chapter III.

2.   N. Y. Docs., IX, 405.
3.   New England.
4.   N. Y. Docs., IX, 438.
5.   Sewall's Letter-Book, Vol. I, 114.
6.   N. Y. Docs., IX, 936. 
7.   One instance of compliance was at Kittery, where thirty-six houses were made "defencible" and all the families were ordered to "Lodge therein."
8.   Que. Docs., III, 126. 
9.   Arch. 31, 156.
10.   Que. Docs., III, 114.
11.   Que. Docs., III, 272.
12.   "Journal of Occurrences," N. Y. Docs., X, 174.

 
 

From Volume 1: CHAPTER VIII
SALMON FALLS, CASCO BAY, SANDY BEACH (RYE)
AND RIVER ST. JOHN

          PARKMAN says that Louis XIV "had done his best for Canada, and had got nothing for his pains but news of mishaps and troubles." In 1689 Callières, governor of Montreal and acting-governor of the colony, went to beg further help from His Majesty, and laid before him an alluring plan for the destruction of the nearest settlements of New England and the town of New York, whereby "the Iroquois, deprived of English arms, would be at the mercy of the French." But when he came back, accompanied by Frontenac, who in spite of his seventy years was again appointed governor, they learned that the French had been at the mercy of the Iroquois and knew that their great plan could not succeed. Still it was necessary to revive the spirits of the soldiers and people, to which end three war-parties were formed respectively at Montreal, Three Rivers and Quebec to strike at border settlements of New York, New Hampshire and Maine. The first to be ready went from Montreal to Corlaer (Schenectady). The Indians -- less than half the command -- were from the missions of Sault Saint Louis and the Mountain.
          Previously Frontenac, to encourage them and to prevent their becoming friendly with the English, had promised to pay ten crowns for every scalp brought in; now he changed the reward because there were all the time war-parties in the field and often scalps were produced about which nothing could be learned; consequently scalps were reduced in price, and for every prisoner brought from near Boston or Orange twenty crowns was promised and for others ten crowns. (1)
          Corlaer was burned and they brought back prisoners and horses laden with spoils; "But ye Snow was so Extream Deep yt it was impossible for any woman to march a mile. So yt they took none but men (2) and boys that could march." So wrote Peter Schuyler on Feb. 15, 1689/90. After describing the brutalities committed, he adds, "But what Shall we Say, we must Lay our hands upon our mouth and be Silent. It is Gods will and Pleasure and we must Submit; it is but what our Sinns and Transgressions have Deserv'd." (3) John Pynchon, writing to the Council from Springfield in July, 1689, about the Dover massacre, the dangers at Northfield and the using of Maquas against the enemy, was less submissive. He believed that man's power availed but little, but said: "Let us take ye more heart to follow God wth or Prayers Night & day & never to give him rest til he hath made or jerusalem a Quiet habitation." (4) It had been voted three days before Pynchon wrote the above to engage the Mohawks (Maquas) to destroy the eastern hostile Indians, promising "for their Incouragement" eight pounds for every fighting man's head or scalp. (5)
 
SECOND WAR PARTY
SALMON FALLS

Tuesday, March 18, 1689/90.

          The second party left Three Rivers January 28 led by Francois Hertel, known in Canadian annals as "Le Heros." With him were his three eldest sons, twenty-five Frenchmen and as many Indians; "half one and half t'other" says Mather, "half Indianized French, and half Frenchified Indians." The Indian leader was Hopehood, who had once been a servant to some man in Boston. (6) After two months of hardship they reached the little village by the Piscataqua River on the night of March 17 [27].
          A French prisoner examined at Portsmouth the next day stated "yt their Designe was not against this place when they came forth, but principly against monsieur Tyng (7) & the place where he lived, but, he saith, the Indians who were their principle pilots did often vary in their opinions about wt place to fall upon." (8)
          Was this the French prisoner "who was so tenderly treated that he embraced & professed the Protestant religion" as says Cotton Mather? Even allowing for that gentleman's prejudice and accepting Abiel Holmes's criticism that he "believed more and discriminated less than becomes a writer of history," yet is it pleasant to read of a convert to Protestantism for the Canadian records teem with converts to Catholicism.
          Lying hidden in the forest the enemy waited, then "Made their onset between break of day & Sunrise when most were a bed & no watch kept neither in fort nor house." (9)  Houses were burned, inhabitants murdered and fifty-four captives taken, mostly women and children, few of whom we find.
          Sewall, writing for the Council to the Governor of Connecticut on March 24, says: "On Tuesday . . . about 60, 1/2 French, 1/2 Indians fell upon Salmon Falls abt Break of day k. w'd & carried away seventy nine persons. We know not of above 2 Fr kill'd & 2 Indians & one French taken who says are in pay from ye French King & several other parties out. Name of ye Capt Monsr Artel Surpris'd our People, finding ym without any watch, burnt many Houses." (10) Lawrence Hammond in his "Journal" (11) says: "Not one Indian was known to have been killed."
          An exaggerated French account states that two thousand horned beasts perished in the stables!
          Two Indian scouts brought news of the coming of the English from Piscataqua and Hertel hurried his retreat. He was overtaken at Wooster River where in the skirmish his son, Hertel de la Frésnière, was wounded and Louis Crevier, his nephew, was killed. Sending part of his force with the prisoners to Quebec, and learning at an Indian village where he left his wounded son that le Sieur de Portneuf had not yet struck his blow, and was distant but two days' journey, he, with the rest of his men, joined the Quebec force near Casco Bay.
          It was in this year, because of his forty years' service, that François Hertel applied for Letters of Nobility, but when Frontenac later asked that the fees be omitted because of the Hero's poor financial condition, Colbert, answering for the King in 1698, said if he were too poor to pay for the seals he was too poor to support the position and so denied him.
 
Captives
Barnard, Benjamin's wife 
Goodwin, Thomas
          Mehitable (Plaisted)
Grant, Martha (Mills | Smith) 
Smith, John 
Hurtado (or Fortado), Elizabeth 
Key, John
          John, Jr.
          James
          Abigail
Oicbac, Jean Baptiste -- (?
Read, John
          Mrs.
Rogers, Robert 
Short, "Six or seven children of the family" of Clement 
Tozier, Richard, Jr.
          Elizabeth (Wentworth | Sharp)
BARNARD, SARAH (Wentworth)
          "Benjamin Barnard's wife of Salmon Falls" was rescued by Captain Church at Fort Androscoggin in September, 1690. (12) Benjamin died at Watertown in 1694. He was of York Co. in 1685 and 1689 and owned land bordered by that of Richard Tozier. In 1705 Paul Wentworth, uncle of the two Barnard children, was made their guardian. This seems to show that Mrs. Sarah was daughter of Elder William and sister of Elizabeth (Wentworth) Tozier. In 1698/9 she married Samuel Winch of Framingham. (13)
 
GOODWIN, THOMAS.
          Son of Daniel and Margaret (Spencer).
          MEHITABLE, his wife, dau. of Lieut. Roger Plaisted and Olive (Coleman).
          They were married in 1685, ten years after her father, commander of the little garrison, was killed. That was when Richard Tozier's house was attacked the second time, and when he was murdered. Lieutenant Plaisted with twenty soldiers went out to bring in the body of his friend and the ambushed Indians waiting for that "last Office of Love" fired upon them, killing the lieutenant and one son and mortally wounding another.
          Thomas and Mehitable were separated after capture and each believed the other dead; indeed a local tradition says that "Hetty" took to herself a new husband in Canada and left him when she learned that Thomas was living. This seems doubtful, as no record of the marriage has been found. Mehitable's story has been printed in the Magnalia and elsewhere.
          She had a cruel master who was disturbed by the wailing of her young baby. To quiet the child she would sit for hours in the snow far from the fire, but the Indian, impatient of her slow progress, snatched it from her arms and killed it.
          Three years later, at Montreal, on "Monday, 11 May, 1693, there was solemnly baptized an English woman, called in her own country, Mehetabel and by the French, who captured her in war 18 March 1690, Esther, who, born at Barwic, in New England 30 April (old style or 19 May new style) 1670, of the marriage of Roger Pleisted, Protestant, and of Olive Colman, of the same religion, and married to Thomas Gouden, also Protestant, living since nearly three years in the service of Mademoiselle de Nauguiere. (l4) She was named Marie Esther, her godfather was Messire Hector de Calieres, Chevalier, Governor for the King in the Island of Monreal and adjacent places. The godmother Damoiselle Marguerite Renée Denis, widow of Monsieur La Nauguiere de la Perade, in his life Captain of the Guard of Monseigneur the Count of Frontenac, Governor general of New France. The baptism performed [an erasure] as well as the preceding by Messire Francois Dolie de Casson Grand vicaire de Monseigneur L'Illustrissime et Reverendissime Bishop of Quebec.
                   Chevalier de Callière 
                   Marguerite renée denis 
                   Fran. Dollier priest 
                             E. Guyotte curé."
          "Hitobl Goodin Kittrey" was redeemed by Cary in 1695.
          Several children were born after her redemption. She was alive in 1740.
          Her quaint, little handmade gravestone is in the old Fields burying ground in Berwick. Her descendants of the seventh generation live where she herself lived.
 
GRANT, MARTHA (Mills | Smith).
          B. 18 June, 1653, dau. of Thomas Mills and Mary Wadleigh (who was the daughter of John of Saco and Wells). Martha was the widow of Christopher Grant; her first husband having been James Smith.
          At Montreal "On Monday, 29 June 1693 was solemnly baptized sous condition an English woman named in her country, Marthe, whose name was kept in baptism, born in Sacio in New England 8 Jan. (old style or 18 new style) 1653 of the marriage of Thomas Mills, native of Excester in Old England and of Marie Wadele native of Brestol near London and married to the late Jaques Smith, inhabitant of Barwic in New England, having been captured there the (illegible) March 1690 by Mr. Artel living for three years in the service of Monsieur Crevier at St. François. Her godfather was Monsieur Pierre Boucher Ecuyer Sieur de Boucherville officier dans le detachment de la Marine. Her godmother Dame Marie Boucher, widow of Monsieur de Varennes, Governor for the King at Three Rivers.
                             Martha mills
Boucherville          Marie boucher
                              E. Guyotte curé"
          Jean Crevier, in whose service Martha Mills Grant lived, was seigneur of Saint-François and father of the lieutenant who had been killed at Salmon Falls. In 1693 the seigneur was himself captured when harvesting his grain near the fort and was carried to New York by the Iroquois, who tortured him frightfully. Major Schuyler paid "£50 for his redemption from ye flames." He must have died in Albany soon after. (15) Martha Mills's first husband, James Smith, died in 1687. Her second, Christopher Grant, was either killed in the attack or died in captivity as administration of his estate was granted 24 February, 1689/90. In her baptismal record Martha is called the widow of Smith. As godmother of Samuel Sentar (1696) and of Jeanne Wannannemin (1698) she is the widow of Grant and signs as Martha Mills.
          Mr. Stackpole says she was redeemed.
 
SMITH, JOHN.
          Son of James and Martha (Mills). (16) At Montreal: "On Sunday 3 May 1693, was baptized a young English child aged seven years and nine months, as having been born the 26 July old style or 5 August N. S. 1685 at Barwic, town of New England of Jacques Smith and of Martha Mills his wife Protestants the child captured in war the 18 March 1690 and living in the service of Mr Dargenteuil, Lieutenant du détachement de la marine. He was named Jean Batiste by his godfather Mr Jean Batiste Daillibout, Sieur des Musseaux, Lieut. du détachement de la marine. The godmother was Damoiselle Felicité Le picard, wife of Mr Daillibout de Coulonges, the baptism was solemnly made by Messire Francois Dolie de Casson, Grand Vicaire de Monseigneur l'Illustrissime et Reverendissime Bishop of Quebec."
          After his redemption John married Elizabeth ---------, lived in Berwick and was the father of eleven children.

HURTADO (Fortado?), ELIZABETH.
          Dau. of Antonio and Mary.
          In "An Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences," the Rev. Increase Mather printed in 1684 "A Brief Narrative of sundry Apparitions of Satan unto and Assaults at sundry times and places upon the Person of Mary the Wife of Antonio Hortado, dwelling near the Salmon Falls: Taken from her own mouth Aug. 13, 1683." It was a merchant of Boston who took the "Narrative," passing it to Mr. Emerson, the schoolmaster, who gave it to the minister, Mr. Joshua Moodey, and he sent it to Mr. Mather.
          The "occurrences" were like other witchcraft tales. Evil spirits were visible, and invisible hands tortured; and once when the said Mary and her Husband were "going in a Cannoo over the River they saw like the head of a man new-shorn and about two or three foot distant from each swimming over beyond the Canoo the tail of a white Cat . . . but no body appeared to joyn head and tail together." The sea serpent could have been no greater wonder!
          And in this month and year their child, Elizabeth, was born. Carried away by the Indians she must have been ransomed, and when nine years old was taken into what probably had been the Church of her father, Antonio. Here is the baptism.
          "This day 24 May, 1692 was baptized Sous condition a little girl born in Pescatoué in New England in August 1683, of the marriage of Antoine Hurtado of Fayol in Portugal (17) and of Marie Hart, native of York in New England, the girl taken the 18 March 1690 by Mr Artel and living now à la Providence (18) having had in her country the name of Elizabeth, received in this ceremony, the name of Louise. Her godfather was Francois Hardouin, clerk of Monsieur Le moine, Sieur de Maricour, Captain. The godmother De Louise Boideau, wife of Mr. Poitier, Merchant, formerly warden of this parish. The baptism solemnly made by Messire Francois Dollié de Casson Priest Grand Vicaire de Monseigneur l'Illustrissime et Reverendissime Bishop of Quebec.
          signed                                      fran dollier
          francois ardouin                        E. Guyotte
                                                          curé."
          Her name is not found again, and this name is questioned by Mr. C. T. Libby, authority for early Maine families. He is sure that her father was Antonio Fortado and her mother Mary Start, daughter of Edward of York.
          In July, 1673, "Antonie Fortatoe and Mary Start" were accused together. In 1674 Mary Portadoe shared in Edward Start's estate.

KEY, JOHN, and children:
          JOHN, JR. 
          JAMES.
          ABIGAIL (Marguerite).
John and John, Jr., were redeemed by Cary in 1695. John, Jr., soon married Grizzel Grant.
James. Mather says he was a little boy -- five years old -- and because he cried for his father and mother was cruelly whipped and then killed by Hopehood.
Abigail.
At Three Rivers, "The 25 Aug. 1695, by me the undersigned priest, was baptized, sous condition an English girl, converted to our religion, and about nineteen born of the marriage of Jean Quée and of Sara de Gearches. (19) She was named Margueritte Renée. The godfather was Monsieur Tonnancour, Capitaine reformé The godmother Madlle Bourdon
Signed:        Tonnancour
                   Marguerite Seigneuret 
                   A. Maudoux. Priest."
          And at Montreal on "Tuesday 20 Oct. 1705, after one publication of the banns, Monsieur de Belmont, Grand Vicaire de Monseigneur the Bishop of Quebec, having granted a dispensation of the other two, and having found no impediment, I, the undersigned priest of the Seminary of Villemarie, empowered to act by the said Grand Vicaire, after having received the mutual consent by word of mouth of Charles Michel l'Huilier, sergeant in the company of Sabrevois, aged forty-two years, son of the late Michel 1'huilier, Citizen of Paris, and of Anne Bourguignon his wife, native of the city and diocese of Paris, parish of Saint Nedaire of one part, and of Marguerite Renée Key, aged twenty-six years, daughter of Jean Key master-carpenter and of Sara Church, his wife, native of Piscatoué in New England of the other part, married them and gave them the nuptial benediction according to the rites of our Holy Mother Church in presence of Damoiselle Marguerite Seigneuret, wife of M. Bourdon, godmother of the bride, of Michel de Pailleur Royal Notary, Sieur Valerien de ----------- Ecuyer Sieur de Beaumont, sergeant in the company of Saint Ours" -- and of several others. Marguerite signed, but the bridegroom could not write his name.
          Perhaps her people did not know of her marriage. Her father gives to each of his three daughters £2, 10s. Two have different names, but she, in 1710, is called Abigail Kye. Her brother John named his daughter for her.
          "Margueritte Renée Kay, English woman, married to a Sergeant of the troops named Chevalier" was naturalized in 1710.
          We have baptismal records of four children: 
Marguerite, 1709, m. 1731 Henri Campeau.
Jean-Charles, 1711. In this the father is called "Charles L' huillier, dit Chevalier." He was absent. The godfather was "Sieur Batiste Dagueil," husband of Priscilla Storer of Wells. He m. 1, M. Jeanne Chevalier; 2, Angélique Larche. 
Pierre, 1714. 
François, 1716, m. 1752 Marguerite Gamelin. 
Louis, 1721, m. 1754 Catherine Gareau.

OICBAC, JEAN BAPTISTE.
          This must be a little boy of Salmon Falls of name like Wickby. At Three Rivers:
          "The 8 September 1690 by me, priest undersigned curate of Three Rivers was baptized soubs condition, with the usual ceremonies Jean Baptiste Oicbac, an English child aged about three years and a half, made prisoner by the war-party from Three Rivers, commanded by Monsieur Hertel the year above written. The godfather was Messire Francois Duchesne Ecuier oficier dans le troupe de la marine, the godmother Madame Elizabeth Ratison de la Vallée, who said she could not sign.
                                                                             A. Maudon, Priest."

REED, MRS. 
"READ JNo of Saman fals."
          John Reed, Sr., was killed. Is not the "Mrs. Reed" of the following record in Braintree his wife? That is the family tradition. "Mrs. Reed, a captive taken at Casco Bay and carried to Canada was redeemed & came to Braintree and died 16 May 1691." John, Jr., the only son, was redeemed in 1695. He was married in Braintree. In 1714 he was living in Lyme, Connecticut.

ROGERS, ROBERT.
          Robert Rogers, a corpulent man and unable to carry his heavy burden, threw it in the path, trying afterwards to hide. The Indians tracked him, tortured and burned him. (20)

SHORT, CHILDREN OF CLEMENT and FAITH (Munt of Boston).
          Clement Short had an early grant in what is now South Berwick. Cotton Mather, not always reliable, says: "This honest man with his pious wife and three children were killed: and six or seven of their children were made prisoners. The most of which arrived safe to Canada . . . and the most of them were afterwards redeemed." (21)
          Was "Richard Short boy, Dover," who remained in 1695 one of the six or seven? Mercy, known to be one, was redeemed by Phips in 1690 and later came into perhaps greater danger, as described by Cotton Mather in a paper he named "A Brand pluck'd out of the Burning." (22) It relates that "Mercy Short had been taken Captive by our cruel and Bloody Indians in the East who at the same time horribly Butchered her father, her Mother her Brother her Sister and others of her Kindred and then carried her and three surviving Brothers with two Sisters from Nieuchewannic unto Canada; after which our Fleet Returning from Quebec to Boston, brought them with other prisoners that were then Redeemed. But altho she had then already Born the Yoke in her youth Yett God Almighty saw it Good for her to Bear more of that Yoke, before seventeen years of her Life had Rolled away."
          The poor girl, alone in Boston, became a servant, and in the Summer of 1692 she was "sent by her Mistress upon an Errand unto the prison and was asked by one of the Suspected Witches for a little Tobacco, and she affronted the Hag (t'was one Sarah Good since executed at Salem) by throwing an Handful of Shavings at her and saying That's Tobacco good enough for you Whereupon that Wretched Woman bestowed some ill words upon her and poor Mercy was taken with just such, or perhaps much worse Fits as those which held the Bewitched people then Tormented by Invisible Furies in the County of Essex."
          Thirty-eight pages of manuscript describe her tortures by the devil. Mather and his friends kept "Three Successive Dayes of Prayer with Fasting on her behalf and then saw her Delivered" on New Year's Eve. For this, there was solemn Thanksgiving. But after seven weeks her Tormentors returned; her Miseries were renewed and his neighbors being weary, Mr. Mather Alone in his study fasted and prayed -- and at last, she was "finally and forever delivered from the hands of evil Angels."

TOZER or TOZIER.
          RICHARD, JR., b. abt. 1660, s. of Richard and Judith (Smith).
          ELIZABETH, his wife, b. abt. 1653, according to her baptismal record, dau. of William and Elizabeth (Knight) Wentworth.
          In September 1675, "Two cruel and barbarous Caitiffs" (Andrew of Saco and Hopehood of Kennebec) assaulted Richard Tozier's house (23) about a mile from Salmon Falls, wherein were fifteen women and children. A girl of eighteen discovered their approach, shut and stood against the door until the others escaped to the next house, which was better secured. The Indians chopped the door to pieces, knocked her down, leaving her for dead and pursued the rest. Two children who could not get over the fence were captured. The unknown heroine recovered.
          In October the place was again attacked and posthaste a letter for help was sent to Dover; "Sirs: if ever you have any Love for us, and the Country now shew yourself with Men to help us . . . They that cannot fight let them pray."
          Richard Tozier and one son were killed and the boy Richard, Jr., was captured, "but returned after some Months Restraint." (24) Lieut. Roger Plaisted who was killed in the attempt to rescue his friend's body was one of the signers of the above letter.
          Tradition gives two Canadian captivities to Richard and three to Elizabeth his wife. It is unlikely that he was carried so far away in 1675. We know that she was in 1690 and probably Richard, too, was in Canada. Elizabeth's father, William Wentworth, was the progenitor of all the distinguished men of the name in the country. He went from Exeter to Wells with the Rev. John Wheelwright, later returning to Dover. There, at the time of the attack, he was in Heard's garrison and awakened as the Indians were coming in "he pushed them out and falling back, pressed his feet against the gate and held it till the people were alarmed so that the women and children were saved." (25) Elizabeth was quickly converted and her baptismal record at Montreal gives much information. (26) "The same day September 8th 1693 was baptized sous condition and afterwards confirmed, an English woman of New England, named in her country Elizabeth which name was kept for her. This woman, born at Pescatoué about forty years since, of the marriage of Guillaume Wintworth Elder in the anglo-Calvinistic religion and of Elizabeth Kenaits, both native of old England and married first to Jaques Sharp, native of Kent in old England and second to Richard Tozer Protestant, was taken the 18th of March of the year 1690 by Monsieur Artel and has lived for two and a half years in the service of Monsieur Boucher, Seigneur of Boucherville. Her godfather was Monsieur Claude de Ramezay Ecuyer Governor of Trois Rivières. her godmother Damoiselle Jeanne Crevier wife of Monsieur Boucher
          Signed:
                                                                   De Ramezay 
                                                                   Jeanne Crevier
                                                                   Elizabeth Tozer."
          The record is indexed "Winterotchs." Nowhere else, so far as the writer has discovered, does James Sharp appear as Elizabeth's husband. In 1671, when she was of marriageable age, he was living in Great Island where one of her brothers lived. In 1699 she and her husband, Richard Tozier, conveyed land in York that was formerly in the possession of James Sharp, (27) and several years later testimony was given that James Sharp lived there -- on the "north Side of the highway that leads from York Meeting House, towards the upper Part of the Town of York" -- in 1674. (28)  In the list of those confirmed on Sept. 8, 1693, is Isabella Tozier Wintworth and the Tozier was erased. The author of the "Wentworth Genealogy," quoting Tanguay, says "There can be no question that one wife of Elder William Wentworth was Elizabeth Kenny . . . the mother of this Elizabeth, the captive." And again: "There is a question whether Elizabeth Knight of Wells, Me., was one of the wives of Elder William Wentworth." The above record answers the questions; proving that Elizabeth Knight was the wife of Elder William and that she -- and not Elizabeth Kenny -- was the mother of our Elizabeth. Nothing definite is known of other captures or redemptions; all is traditional.
          It is said that the Indians came once while she was boiling soap and she, throwing it upon them, caused their retreat. Again, dressed in man's clothes with gun in hand she acted as sentry while the men were in the fields.
          Of her last capture the Genealogy (29) says that when Richard saw the Indians coming he told his wife she must do the best she could; he preferred death to another captivity. If she were taken he would redeem her if he lived. So covering himself with a feather bed he ran out of the back door to the frozen river. The ice was thin and he broke through. The Indians seeing the hole and the bed believed him drowned and did not follow.
          They pillaged and burned the house, carrying off Elizabeth and all its inmates. Meantime Tozer was watching from the river's bank.
          After this attack he built the blockhouse which stood until 1885.
 
Notes

1.  Que. Docs., I, 579.

2.  One of whom was John Lahey, who married Mary Swarton of Casco.
3.  Arch. 35, 239.
4.  Arch. 108, 178. 
5.  Arch. 107, 161.
6.  "Hist. of the Indian and French Wars," Niles.
7.  Capt. Edward Tyng lived at Casco, his brother Jonathan at Dunstable.
8.  Arch. 35, 325.
9.  Letter from Portsmouth. Arch. 35, 326.
10.  Arch. 35, 362. 
11.  "Mass. Hist. Pro.," 14, 126.
12.  See Church's Wars.
13.  "Wentworth Genealogy," I, 109-111.
14.  Written also de la Naudière.
15.  N. Y. Docs., IV, 66, and "Hist. de Saint-François-du-Lac."
16.  James Smith's will names four children-John the last.
17.  Hurtado may have come hither in a whaling ship, which then touched at the Western Islands in search of sperm whale.
18.  Domestic School established by Marguerite Bourgeoys, see p. 16.
19.  Church.
20.  "Tragedies of the Wilderness," Drake. 
21.  Magnalia, II, 596.
22.  The story was not printed, but Mather lent it to his friends. The manuscript was thought to have been lost until about 1870 when found among some Mather papers owned by the American Antiquarian Society, and it has since been printed by the American History Association in its "Original Narratives of Early American History."
23.  Sullivan calls it John Tozier's.
24.  Hubbard's "Indian Wars."
25.  "Hist. Wells," 29.
26.  See French record in Appendix.
27.  York Deeds, 6, 41. 
28.  York Deeds, 10 164.
29.  Vol. 1, 150.

Editors' note.
    This text is not consistent in its use of French letters, notably the "ç," as in François, and various accented "e's."  We have followed the text, making no attempts at correction, except where indicated with brackets.

Edited by Terry & Linda Heller, Coe College

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